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Figure 4: Decreased specificity protein 1 and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition process mediate increased radiosensitivity of SMMC-7721 cells. (a) Irradiation increases apoptosis, which could be attenuated by metformin. (b) TGF-β1 and irradiation both enhanced tumor invasion of SMMC-7721 cells. *P < 0.05 versus control group, #P < 0.05 versus irradiation alone group. (c) Photograph shows morphological appearance of SMMC-7721 cells. Western blot was performed to determine protein levels of specificity protein 1 (d), E-cadherin (e), and Vimentin (f). 1=Control, 2=IR, 3=metformin, 4=TGF, 5=TGF + metformin, 6=TGF + mithramycin. *P < 0.05 versus control group, #P < 0.05 versus TGF-β1 group, TGF=Transforming growth factor

Figure 4: Decreased specificity protein 1 and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition process mediate increased radiosensitivity of SMMC-7721 cells. (a) Irradiation increases apoptosis, which could be attenuated by metformin. (b) TGF-β1 and irradiation both enhanced tumor invasion of SMMC-7721 cells. *<i>P</i> < 0.05 versus control group, <sup>#</sup><i>P</i> < 0.05 versus irradiation alone group. (c) Photograph shows morphological appearance of SMMC-7721 cells. Western blot was performed to determine protein levels of specificity protein 1 (d), E-cadherin (e), and Vimentin (f). 1=Control, 2=IR, 3=metformin, 4=TGF, 5=TGF + metformin, 6=TGF + mithramycin. *<i>P</i> < 0.05 versus control group, <sup>#</sup><i>P</i> < 0.05 versus TGF-β1 group, TGF=Transforming growth factor