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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2009| January-March  | Volume 5 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 17, 2009

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Long-term results of LINAC-based stereotactic radiosurgery for acoustic neuroma: The Greek experience
Maria-Aggeliki Kalogeridi, Paraskevi Georgolopoulou, Vassilis Kouloulias, John Kouvaris, George Pissakas
January-March 2009, 5(1):8-13
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.48764  PMID:19293482
Purpose: To estimate the value of LINAC-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for the long-term local control of unilateral acoustic neuromas. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients (median age 66; range 57-80 years) with unilateral acoustic neuroma underwent LINAC-based SRS from May 2000 through June 2004 with a dose of 11-12 Gy. The follow-up period ranged from 36 to 84 months (median follow-up period: 55 months). Before SRS none of the patients had useful hearing. The follow-up consisted of repeat imaging studies and clinical examination for assessment of facial and trigeminal nerve function at 6-month intervals for the first year and yearly thereafter. Results: Eleven tumors (58%) decreased in size and eight (42%) remained stable. One tumor showed a minor increase in size on the MRI done 6 months after SRS in comparison with the pretreatment MRI; however, a subsequent decrease was noticed on the next radiographic assessment and the tumor remained stable from then on. None of the tumors increased in size in the long-term follow-up, thus giving an overall growth control of 100% for the patients in this study. None of the patients had useful hearing before SRS, so hearing level was not assessed during follow-up. No patient developed new, permanent facial or trigeminal neuropathy. Conclusion: LINAC-based SRS with 11-12 Gy provides excellent tumor control in acoustic neuroma and has low toxicity even after long-term follow-up.
  21 6,039 440
Concurrent chemoradiotherapy in the management of advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Current status
Said Afqir, Nabil Ismaili, Hassan Errihani
January-March 2009, 5(1):3-7
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.48763  PMID:19293481
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) differs from other head and neck cancers in its epidemiology, natural behavior and, particularly, in the therapeutic considerations. In addition, NPC is responsive to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT). This article reviews the recent advances in concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for NPC. To identify the studies mentioned in this article, we searched the MEDLINE database, and abstracts of selected conference proceedings (up to 2008) using the key words 'nasopharyngeal carcinoma,' 'advanced,' 'radiotherapy,' and 'concurrent chemotherapy.' Eight randomized clinical trials of CCRT in NPC have been reported in the English literature. These trials can be classified according to the timing of the chemotherapy, which was given either concurrently with RT (in three trials) or concurrently with radiotherapy and adjuvant after the and of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (in five trials). There have also been four meta-analyses addressing the value and scheduling of chemotherapy in the curative treatment of NPC. This article reviews the recent literature and the pertinent issues concerning the role of CCRT in the treatment of patients with locoregionally advanced NPC.
  15 8,662 1,434
Reirradiation with high-dose-rate remote afterloading brachytherapy implant in patients with locally recurrent or residual cervical carcinoma
Dinesh K Badakh, Amit H Grover
January-March 2009, 5(1):24-30
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.48766  PMID:19293485
Purpose: To assess the outcome for patients with postradiation locally recurrent or residual cervical malignancies treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) remote afterloading brachytherapy implant. This is a prospective study. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two patients with postradiation recurrent cervical carcinomas were treated with HDR interstitial brachytherapy. All of these 22 patients had received some form of radiotherapy prior to implant placement and had biopsy-proven recurrence. Implant dose for these patients was in the range of 12-45 Gy, with a median dose of 25.80 Gy. Results: Overall survival was better for patients in the 'no bad prognostic factor' (NBPF) group than for patients in the 'bad prognostic factor' (BPF) group and this difference was statistically significant. Overall survival was better for patients who had stage II disease before implant placement than for those who had stage III disease and also for patients who had relatively less parametrial disease. Grade 4 complications were seen only in four patients and were within acceptable limits. Multivariate analysis showed that only the BPF variable had a statistically significant effect on survival. Conclusion: We conclude that reirradiation with HDR brachytherapy implant in recurrent or residual carcinoma cervix can give a good chance of survival, with acceptable morbidity, if proper selection of patients is done. This treatment should not be done for palliative purposes.
  11 5,029 658
Butterfly glioma of the corpus callosum
Amit Agrawal
January-March 2009, 5(1):43-45
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.48769  PMID:19293489
The prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is poor even with aggressive first-line therapy, which includes surgery, radiation therapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Although the ideal course of treatment for elderly patients with newly diagnosed GBM is still undecided and requires further studies, the new chemotherapeutic agents administered with or without concomitant radiation therapy have shown promising results. However, in our setting, where resources are limited and newer treatment options are expensive, it is often difficult to deliver the best care to the patient.
  9 21,588 928
Importance of contouring the cervical spine levels in initial intensity-modulated radiation therapy radiation for head and neck cancers: Implications for re-irradiation
Bhupesh Parashar, Chi Kuo, David Kutler, William Kuhel, Albert Sabbas, Gabriella Wernicke, Dattatreyudu Nori
January-March 2009, 5(1):36-40
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.48767  PMID:19293487
Aim: To evaluate the maximum differential cervical spinal (C-spine) cord dose in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans of patients undergoing radiotherapy for treatment of head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: The C-spine of ten head and neck cancer patients that were planned using IMRT and each cervical vertebral body and the right and left sides was contoured by splitting the cord in the center. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) and maximum point doses were obtained for each contour and compared. Results: The dose to the cord varied with the location of the primary tumor but such variation was not consistently seen. This report provides information that is critical for planning reirradiation treatments. We recommend that contouring of the C-spine cord with IMRT should include outlining of each cervical cord level and identification of the right and the left sides of the cord on each plan.
  8 3,876 431
Numb chin syndrome as a manifestation of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus
H Narendra, Satadru Ray
January-March 2009, 5(1):49-51
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.48771  PMID:19293491
Numb chin syndrome (NCS) is a sensory neuropathy presenting with numbness of the chin in the distribution of the mental nerve and the branches of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Though it can be caused by a benign process, NCS should be regarded as being due to malignancy until proven otherwise. Among the malignancies that cause NCS the most common are breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lymphoreticular malignancy. In squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the esophagus, spread to the mandible is a rare and often late event. An often overlooked clinical sign in mandibular metastases is hypoesthesia or paresthesia over the peripheral distribution of the inferior alveolar nerve/mental nerve; this sign has been referred to in the literature as NCS or numb lip syndrome or mental nerve neuropathy. Rarely, this may be the first presentation of a disseminated malignancy. Prognosis is usually poor. The discovery of this symptom should alert the clinician to the possibility of disseminated disease. In this article we report a rare case of metastatic SCC of the esophagus in a 40-year-old male patient who presented with NCS. We also review the mechanism, causes, and evaluation of NCS.
  8 33,600 710
Inverse planning for the T1 - T2 conundrum in translation research
Rajiv Sarin
January-March 2009, 5(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.48762  PMID:19293480
  7 3,552 380
Comparison between young and old patients with bronchogenic carcinoma
R Prasad, SK Verma, Sanjay
January-March 2009, 5(1):31-35
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.44296  PMID:19293486
Objective: This study was undertaken to explore the clinicopathological profile of bronchogenic carcinoma in young patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 799 consecutive histopathologically proven cases of bronchogenic carcinoma that were referred from different parts of Uttar Pradesh. Results: Out of 799 patients, 73 patients (9.1%; 59 males and 14 females) were ≤ 40 years of age and were classified as 'young' patients. The mean ages of the subjects in the younger and older patient groups were 36 and 58 years, respectively. Among the older patients, 590 (81.3%) were smokers, and there were 53 (72.6%) smokers among the younger patients. Squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest histological subtype in both the groups, but squamous cell carcinoma was more frequently diagnosed in older patients than in younger patients. Conclusion: This study suggests that, regardless of age or sex, lung cancer must be ruled out in all patients who have persistent signs of pulmonary disease and a history of heavy smoking.
  7 5,073 512
Rhabdoid variant of lung cancer: Clinicopathological details of a case and a review of literature
Gagan Saini, Milind Kumar, Pramod K Julka, Tarun Puri, Mehar Sharma, Goura K Rath
January-March 2009, 5(1):54-57
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.48773  PMID:19293493
Primary rhabdoid tumor of lung is a rare histological and clinical entity. Lung tumors with rhabdoid features have been included as variants of large-cell carcinoma in the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lung tumors. A large-cell carcinoma with a rhabdoid phenotype (LCCRP) is unusual, with only 38 cases reported till date. We report the clinical details of one such case that was treated with pneumonectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. We also present a review of the literature. To identify relevant articles, we searched PubMed, Ovid, and IngentaConnect databases using the key words 'rhabdoid,' 'lung cancer,' and 'primary rhabdoid tumor of lung.'
  6 6,197 521
Chondrosarcoma of bone: Does the size of the tumor, the presence of a pathologic fracture, or prior intervention have an impact on local control and survival?
Ajay Puri, Mandip Shah, Manish G Agarwal, Nirmala A Jambhekar, Prabhudev Basappa
January-March 2009, 5(1):14-19
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.44362  PMID:19293483
Aims and Objectives: We studied 45 patients with chondrosarcoma, without metastasis at diagnosis, who were surgically treated between January 2000 and December 2004 to evaluate the risk factors associated with local recurrence and metastasis. Materials and Methods: Fourteen (31%) patients had had some major prior intervention, either in the form of an open biopsy or a curettage / unplanned excision, before presenting to us. Eight patients had pathologic fractures at presentation. None of the patients received adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The follow-up duration ranged from 8-75 months. All survivors had a minimum follow-up of 36 months (range 36-75 months). Results: There were 11 grade 1 (24.5%), 23 grade 2 (51%), and 11 grade 3 (24.5%) chondrosarcomas. Thirty-two (71%) patients had tumors that were larger than 8 cm in the greatest dimension. Margins were adequate in 31 patients. Twenty-five patients had disease relapse; there were four local failures, nine distant failures, and 12 combined failures. At the time of the last review, 12 patients had died, 11 were alive with disease, and 22 were free of disease. The cumulative event-free survival was 44% and the overall survival was 73%. Conclusion: Grade of tumor, size of tumor, and adequacy of resection might be important predictors of outcome. Local recurrence is a prelude to distant metastasis and portends poor ultimate survival. The presence of a pathological fracture could indicate biologically aggressive disease, and limb salvage in these cases should be advised with caution. Even in cases where there has been a prior unplanned intervention, local control can be achieved by subsequent adequate resection.
  6 6,798 551
Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of bone: An unusual presentation
Ronald F Pinheiro, Francisco DR Filho, Gabrielle G Lima, Francisco VA Ferreira
January-March 2009, 5(1):52-53
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.48772  PMID:19293492
Primary lymphoma of bone (PLB) is an extremely rare condition that is usually confused with other primary injuries of the bone. It is characterized by the involvement of one or more bone locations, with or without involvement of regional lymph nodes and viscera. PLB constitutes 3-7% of all malignant bone tumors and approximately 3% of all extranodal lymphomas. It is found at all ages, being most frequently seen in adult life. Any part of the skeleton can be involved, but a trend exists in favor of bones with persistent bone marrow. We report a case of PLB with an unusual presentation: involvement of the proximal phalanx of the thumb. Treatment with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) plus etoposide established complete remission. Consolidation with radiotherapy of the femur and phalanx was performed. There was no evidence of recurrence at the 14 th month follow-up.
  3 6,147 552
Hypercalcemia and treated breast cancers: The diagnostic dilemma
Vishal Rao, Devendra Chaukar, Anil K D'Cruz
January-March 2009, 5(1):46-48
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.48770  PMID:19293490
The relationship of hypercalcemia with cancer is well described in the literature. Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy associated with hypercalcemia; the detection of hypercalcemia in these patients usually signifies metastatic disease and is associated with a poor prognosis. However, the treating oncologist should keep in mind that a strong correlation exists between breast cancer and primary hyperparathyroidism. We present a case of a patient of treated breast cancer who, in the absence of metastatic bone disease, developed hypercalcemia due to hyperparathyroidism secondary to a parathyroid adenoma.
  2 23,189 558
Field-in-field technique for upper abdominal malignancies in clinical radiotherapy
R Prabhakar, KP Haresh, M Kumar, DN Sharma, PK Julka, GK Rath
January-March 2009, 5(1):20-23
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.48765  PMID:19293484
Background: In upper abdominal malignancies (UAM), due to the presence of multiple inhomogeneous tissues, a wedge-based conformal treatment planning results in high-dose regions inside the target volume. Aim: This study was designed to explore the feasibility of using a field-in-field (FIF) technique in different UAM and its efficacy in reducing the high-dose regions. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients of UAM (which included malignancies of the gastroesophageal junction, stomach, gall bladder, and pancreas) were selected for this study. Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed and three-dimensional conformal wedge plans were generated for all the cases. The same plan was copied with the wedges removed and a FIF plan was generated. The two plans were compared for mean, maximum, and median doses; dose received by 2% (D2) and 98% (D98) of the target volume; volume receiving >107% (V > 107%) and <95% (V < 95%) of the prescribed dose; conformality index (CI); and total monitor units. The doses to critical structures such as liver, kidneys, and spinal cord were also compared. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS, version 10.0. Results: For all the cases, the FIF technique was better than wedge-based planning in terms of maximum dose, D2, V > 107%, and CI; there was a statistically significant reduction in monitor units. With regard to doses to critical structures, there was marginal dose reduction for the kidneys and spinal cord with FIF as compared to wedge-based planning. Conclusion: The FIF technique can be employed for UAM in place of wedge-based conformal treatment plans.
  2 5,928 502
Invasive thymoma with intraorbital metastases
S Nirmala, MG Janaki, K Malavika, Karthik S Rishi
January-March 2009, 5(1):41-42
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.48768  PMID:19293488
Thymomas are epithelial neoplasm of thymus and most common primary neoplasm of anterior and superior mediastinum affecting males and females equally. It occurs usually in the fifth to seventh decade. Approximately one-third of thymomas are invasive. Metastases to distant extrathoracic sites such as the liver, lung, lymph node, kidneys, ovary and brain occur infrequently. This is more common with invasive thymomas. Although brain has been shown to be a site of infrequent metastases, intraorbital metastases has not yet been reported. Here we report one such case of invasive thymoma of anterior superior mediastinum, which later metastasized to orbit as well as the brain.
  1 2,912 252
Elephants on Acid and other Bizarre Experiments
Nagraj G Huilgol
January-March 2009, 5(1):59-59
  - 3,407 1,109
Breast Cancer - Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Sapna Gupta
January-March 2009, 5(1):60-60
  - 1,918 179
The Johns Hopkins Breast Cancer Handbook for Health Care Professionals
Meena Tiwari
January-March 2009, 5(1):61-61
  - 2,392 230
Interview with outgoing President of AROI
Meena Tiwari
January-March 2009, 5(1):62-63
  - 2,152 185
The enigma of proton therapy for head and neck cancers
R Kazi
January-March 2009, 5(1):58-58
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.48774  PMID:19293494
  - 2,188 271