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   2008| July-September  | Volume 4 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 27, 2008

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Pulmonary sarcoidosis simulating metastatic breast cancer
Dimitrios M Dragoumis, Aris P Tsiftsoglou, Anthoula S Assimaki
July-September 2008, 4(3):134-136
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.43148  PMID:18923207
The clinical appearance and imaging findings of sarcoidosis and breast carcinoma may sometimes mimic one another, making the differential diagnosis between these two diseases difficult in some cases. A 69-year-old woman displayed an irregular shaped lesion in her left breast. Preoperative localization modalities detected a breast mass with malignant characters. The patient also was found to have pulmonary findings for metastatic disease on chest computed tomography. These features were proven upon biopsy to be consistent with sarcoidosis. The patient underwent breast surgery, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and hormonal therapy, while corticosteroids were administered for pulmonary sarcoidosis. The patient is well 12 months later, without recurrence. An unfortunate consequence of the presence of both entities in the same patient is the risk of misguided differential diagnosis and incorrect therapeutic strategy. This patient shows the importance of confirming a clinical diagnosis of sarcoidosis with appropriate biopsies and histological examination, prior to initiation of breast cancer therapy.
  11,892 498 5
Amelioration of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Swiss albino mice by Rubia cordifolia extract
Jisha Joy, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan Nair
July-September 2008, 4(3):111-115
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.43139  PMID:18923202
Background: Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutics against a wide range of cancers including head, neck, ovarian and lung cancers. But its usefulness is limited by its toxicity to normal tissues, including cells of the kidney proximal tubule. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia could decrease the intensity of toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Cisplatin at a dose of 12 mg/kg body wt was administered intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice. Another set of animals was given hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia at different doses along with cisplatin treatment. The antioxidant levels, serum creatinine, serum urea etc. were analyzed. Results: The extract could significantly decrease the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity as inferred from the tissue antioxidant status in the drug administered animals. Remarkable change was observed in serum creatinine and urea levels. Lipid peroxidation in the kidney and liver tissues was also considerably reduced in Rubia cordifolia extract treated animals. Conclusion: Hydro-alcoholic extracts of Rubia cordifolia are effective in reducing the renal damage caused by the cancer chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Since Rubia cordifolia has been in use as an important ingredient in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine, it could be safe and beneficial to use this herbal extract as an adjuvant to ameliorate renal damage in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy with cisplatin.
  8,584 1,073 25
Quality of life outcome measures following partial glossectomy: Assessment using the UW-QOL scale
R Kazi, C Johnson, V Prasad, J De Cordova, R Venkitaraman, CM Nutting, P Clarke, P Rhys Evans, KJ Harrington
July-September 2008, 4(3):116-120
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.42641  PMID:18923203
Background: The consequences of a diagnosis of head and neck cancer and the impact of treatment have a clear and direct influence on well-being and associated quality of life (QOL) in these patients. Aims: To determine the QOL in head and neck cancer patients following a partial glossectomy operation. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional cohort study; Head and Neck Oncology Unit, tertiary referral center. Materials and Methods: 38 patients with partial glossectomy were assessed with the University of Washington head and neck quality of life (UW-QOL) scale, version 4. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 10.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago version III). Information from the scale was correlated using the Mann Whitney test. A P value less than/equal to 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The mean (sd) composite score of the QOL in our series was 73.6 (16.1). The majority (71.8%) quoted their QOL as good or very good. Swallowing (n = 16, 47.1%), speech (n = 15, 44.1%) and saliva (n = 15, 44.1%) were most commonly cited issues over the last 7 days. On the other hand, the groups with reconstruction, neck dissection, complications and radiotherapy demonstrated a significant reduction of quality of life scores (Mann Whitney test, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The composite score and overall QOL as assessed using the UW-QOL scale (version 4) were modestly high in our series of partial glossectomy patients. Swallowing, speech, and saliva are regarded as the most important issues. Stage of the disease, neck dissection, reconstruction, complications, radiotherapy and time since operation were seen to significantly affect domain scores.
  8,994 584 14
Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the maxillary sinus: A rare head and neck tumor
Milind Kumar, Shikha Goyal, Amit Bahl, Prasenjit Das, DN Sharma, Ruma Ray, GK Rath
July-September 2008, 4(3):131-133
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.43146  PMID:18923206
Sarcomatoid carcinomas are rare tumors. These tumors have been reported at other sites, but head and neck origin is extremely uncommon. We report here a rare case of sarcomatoid carcinoma involving the maxilla. Only four such cases with maxillary origin have been discussed in English literature earlier. As compared to squamous cell carcinoma of maxilla, this variant is associated with poor prognosis and advanced disease at presentation, as was also seen in our case. There are no standard recommendations for management owing to the rarity of this histology. Surgery and radiotherapy form the mainstays of treatment. Exploration of the role of chemotherapy and novel targeted therapy agents is warranted in order to improve treatment results.
  7,066 535 2
Normal tissue complication probability of fibrosis in radiotherapy of breast cancer: Accelerated partial breast irradiation vs conventional external-beam radiotherapy
KS Jothy Basu, Amit Bahl, V Subramani, DN Sharma, GK Rath, PK Julka
July-September 2008, 4(3):126-130
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.43143  PMID:18923205
Aims: Radiotherapy forms an integral part of breast-conserving treatment in early-stage breast cancer. Subcutaneous fibrosis of the treated breast is an important late effect in whole-breast irradiation. The aim of this study was to compare the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for radiation-induced fibrosis in treated breast using accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) vs conventional treatment. Materials and Methods: Ten postoperative early-stage breast cancer patients (T1N0M0) were included in this dosimetric analysis. APBI treatment was planned using conformal radiotherapy technique and conventional treatment plans included two tangential portals. All the APBI treatment plans were made with five non-coplanar beams with 6 MV photons. The prescription dose was 38 Gy in 10 fractions for the APBI treatments and 50 Gy in 25 fractions, followed by a boost dose of 16 Gy in 8 fractions, for the conventional treatments. We used Lyman's relative-seriality model and the breast fibrosis NTCP model fitting parameters for the study. Results: The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) was 30.09 Gy and 50.79 Gy in APBI and conventional treatment, respectively. The mean NTCP values for ipsilateral breast fibrosis in APBI and conventional treatment were 0.51 and 25.66%, respectively. Using the paired t-test, a statistically significant difference was seen in the breast fibrosis NTCP values for APBI vs conventional treatment (P <0.001). Conclusions: APBI reduces the ipsilateral breast fibrosis compared to conventional whole-breast treatment in early-stage breast cancer.
  6,922 679 14
HPV vaccine for primary prevention of cervical cancer in developing countries: The missing links
Rajiv Sarin
July-September 2008, 4(3):105-106
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.43138  PMID:18923200
  5,281 667 6
Suprasellar ganglioglioma with unusual diffuse involvement of the entire optico-chiasmal hypothalamic pathway
Rakesh Jalali, Chandrashekar E Deopujari, Ritu Bhutani, U Suhas, Preetha Rajasekharan, Shubdha V Kane, Tejpal Gupta
July-September 2008, 4(3):140-143
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.43151  PMID:18923209
Gangliogliomas (GG) are mixed glioneuronal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), occurring mostly in the pediatric population, with common sites being temporal lobes and less commonly in the frontal and parietal lobes. We report a case of a 7-year-old child who presented with bilateral visual defects for 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed an intensely enhancing mass lesion with calcification in the sellar and suprasellar region involving the optic chiasm and the left optic nerve. The mass showed almost bilaterally symmetrical diffuse spread along the optic tracts posteriorly and hypothalamus, temporal lobes, thalami and the basal ganglia. The lesion was radiologically indistinguishable from chiasmatic astrocytoma or a germ cell tumor but histopathological features were of a ganglioglioma. While a few optic apparatus gangliogliomas have been reported in the literature, such widespread diffuse involvement of the entire optico-chiasmal hypothalamic pathway is unusual.
  5,330 462 7
Paradox of wellness and nonadherence among Nigerian women on breast cancer chemotherapy
Adewale Oluseye Adisa, Oladejo Olukayode Lawal, Abdul Rasheed Kayode Adesunkanmi
July-September 2008, 4(3):107-110
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.42640  PMID:18923201
Context: Intentional nonadherence among cancer patients is rare and may occur only when the benefits of treatment are not obvious to the patient. Aims: To highlight a group of women on chemotherapy for breast cancer who defaulted from their medications because they were improving. Settings and Design: A study was carried out of the reasons for nonadherence to medications among women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer at a Nigerian teaching hospital between January 1993 and December 2002. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of patients' records was done. Results: Of the 188 women who received chemotherapy during the study period, 152 (80.9%) defaulted from treatment at one point or another. The reasons for nonadherence were available in 101 patients. Among these, 18 (18.0%) reported nonadherence because they felt better after commencing chemotherapy. They were aged 31-50 years (Mean = 35.6 (SD3.2)). Six (33.3%) of them presented in AJCC Stage I, and 10 (55.6%) in stage II. Age and disease stage at presentation were found to have significant influence on their reason for nonadherence. Of the nine women on neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, six (66.7%) had complete response but defaulted and five (55.6%) re-presented within a year with metastatic disease. Three of the patients receiving systemic post-surgery chemotherapy presented within a year with local recurrence. Most of the other patients were subsequently lost to follow-up. Conclusions: Nonadherence due to wellness among breast cancer patients is associated with poor outcome. We propose a detailed prospective study to establish factors that may influence such behavior.
  5,181 401 6
Granulocytic sarcoma masquerading as Ewing's sarcoma: A diagnostic dilemma
Kunhi Parambath Haresh, Nikhil Joshi, Chaitali Gupta, Ramachandran Prabhakar, Daya Nand Sharma, Pramod Kumar Julka, Goura Kishor Rath
July-September 2008, 4(3):137-139
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.43150  PMID:18923208
An eleven-year-old boy presented with a swelling in his left elbow. Radiologically the features were that of an Ewing's sarcoma involving the ulna. Histopathology showed small round cell tumor strongly positive for Monoclonal Imperial Cancer research fund 2 (MIC2) antigen. Similar cells in the bone marrow were involved with MIC2 positivity. The patient developed skin lesions, which on biopsy were found to be chloromas. The initial biopsies were reevaluated with special stains revealing granulocytic sarcomas in acute myeloid leukemia masquerading as Ewing's due to its MIC2 positivity. The possibility of myeloid neoplasms should be considered routinely with known MIC2 positive round cell tumors.
  4,450 353 14
Comparative evaluation between re-irradiation and demand endoscopic dilatation vs endoscopic dilatation alone in patients with recurrent/reactivated residual in-field esophageal malignancies
Mohmad Ashraf Teli, G Nabi Mushood, S Ali Zargar, Wajahat H Andrabi
July-September 2008, 4(3):121-125
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.43140  PMID:18923204
Background: Esophageal cancer has emerged as a major health challenge in many regions of the world, including the valley of Kashmir, which is situated adjacent to the esophageal cancer belt on its Southern side. Radiotherapy is one of the main modalities of treatment. However, residual/recurrent disease is common and salvage options for these patients are limited. Scarce literature is available regarding the use of re-irradiation in this setting though re-irradiation has been successfully used in recurrent tumors at various other anatomical sites. Aim: In the present study, external beam re-irradiation with demand dilatation vs per-oral endoscopic dilatation alone were compared with regard to the impact of these modalities on symptom control, survival, and quality of life of the patients. Treatment-related sequelae were also compared. Setting and Design: Prospective and randomized. Materials and Methods: The study included 34 cases who were palliated with re-irradiation and 35 cases who refused to enter the experimental protocol and, therefore, received per-oral demand dilatation alone, with the disease being allowed to follow its natural course. Both groups were statistically cross-matched with regard to their demographic and clinical parameters. Statistical Method Used: Mann-Whitney U-test, Chi-square test, Student's t-test, and Kaplan-Meier test for survival analysis. Results: The results favor the use of re-irradiation as it significantly improves dysphagia-free survival and quality of life. The treatment-related complications/morbidity of this protocol was acceptable. Conclusion: A trial of re-irradiation with external beam is justified in selected patients.
  3,938 326 3
Radiofrequency ablation should not be considered as an alternative to surgical resection
Rajeev Sharma
July-September 2008, 4(3):144-144
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.43152  PMID:18923210
  2,747 196 2
Radiofrequency ablation in liver metastasis: Authors' reply
GK Rath, PK Julka, S Thulkar, DN Sharma, Amit Bahl, S Bhatnagar
July-September 2008, 4(3):145-145
  2,514 158 -
Dilemmas of Plenty
Amit Agrawal
July-September 2008, 4(3):146-146
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.43154  PMID:18923211
  1,780 145 -