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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2006| April-June  | Volume 2 | Issue 2  
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Hyperthermia today: Electric energy, a new opportunity in cancer treatment
Giammaria Fiorentini, Andras Szasz
April-June 2006, 2(2):41-46
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.25848  PMID:17998673
Hyperthermia is an ancient, but nowadays rapidly developing treatment method in tumor-therapy. Its new paradigm applied in the electro-hyperthermia (oncothermia), which provides energy by means of electric-field and produces non-equilibrium thermal situation in the tissue. The temperature gradients formed in stationer conditions, destroy the membrane of the malignant cells and selectively eliminate the cancer tissue. The characteristic control parameter is the absorbed energy-dose, which is partly used to make the distortions, partly to increase the temperature of the target. This type of technique could be applied for some tumor sites, including brain, soft tissues, liver and abdominal masses, pancreatic cancer, head and neck tumors as well.
  19 33,845 1,476
Lingual schwannoma
Murat Enoz, Yusufhan Suoglu, Ridvan Ilhan
April-June 2006, 2(2):76-78
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.25856  PMID:17998681
Schwannomas or neurilemmomas are benign, slow growing, usually solitary and encapsulated tumor, originating from Schwann cells of the nerve sheath. Intraoral schwannoma accounts for 1% of head and neck region and are commonly seen at the base region of tongue. Most of the few such reports in the literature, have described schwannomas that occurred in the tongue. In this article, we report a rare case of lingual schwannoma involving the anterior of tongue, in a young individual, in whom the lesion was completely excised via an intra oral approach.
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Carcinoma of uterine cervix with isolated metastasis to fibula and its unusual behavior: Report of a case and review of literature
Rajesh Pasricha, Anu Tiwari, Tanu Aggarwal, Punita Lal
April-June 2006, 2(2):79-81
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.25857  PMID:17998682
Bone metastasis from carcinoma cervix is uncommon, especially in the distal appendicular skeleton. A 36 year old lady presented with carcinoma of uterine cervix, FIGO, stage IIb. She was treated with radical radiotherapy. Nine months later, she developed an isolated lytic lesion in right fibula, which turned out to be a metastatic lesion. The patient is doing well, 3 years after the surgical excision of metastasis. This is one of the few documented cases of metastasis to fibula, arising from carcinoma of uterine cervix and probably the first with isolated metastasis of this site. Unlike the dismal outcome commonly seen in patients with bone secondaries, she continues to be disease free and alive at 39 months of follow up, after the development of skeletal metastasis.
  12 7,522 431
Enhancement of radionuclide induced cytotoxicity by 2-deoxy-D-glucose in human tumor cell lines
V Shrivastava, AK Mishra, BS Dwarakanath, T Ravindranath
April-June 2006, 2(2):57-64
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.25851  PMID:17998676
The efficacy of targeted radiotherapy can be enhanced by selective delivery of radionuclide to the tumors and/or by differentially enhancing the manifestation of radiation damage in tumors. Our earlier studies have shown that the 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), an inhibitor of glucose transport and glycolytic ATP production, selectively enhances the cytotoxicity of external beam radiation in tumor cells. Therefore, it is suggested that 2-DG may also enhance the cytotoxic effects of radionuclides selectively in tumor cells, thereby improving the efficacy of radionuclide therapy. In vitro studies on breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-468) and glioma (U-87) cell lines, has been carried out to verify this proposition. Clonogenicity (macrocolony assay), cell proliferation, cytogenetic damage (micronuclei formation) and apoptosis were investigated as parameters of radiation response. Mean inactivation dose D (dose required to reduce the survival from 1 to 0.37), was 48 MBq/ml and 96 MBq/ml for 99 mTc, treated MDA-MB-468 and U-87, respectively. The dose response of growth inhibition, induction of micronuclei formation and apoptosis observed under these conditions, were correlated well with the changes in cell survival. Presence of 2-DG (5 mM) during radionuclide exposure (24 hrs), reduced the survival by nearly 2 folds in MDA-MB-468 (from 48.5 MBq to18.5 MBq) and by 1.6 folds in U-87 cells (from 96 MBq to 66 Mbq). These results clearly show that the presence of 2-DG during radionuclide exposure, significantly enhances the cytotoxicity, by increasing mitotic as well as interphase death. Further studies to understand the mechanisms of radio-sensitization by 2-DG and preclinical studies using tumor-bearing animals, are required for optimizing the treatment schedule.
  11 7,149 444
Dendritic cells heterogeneity and its role in cancer immunity
Lin Kah-Wai, Tabarkiewicz Jacek, Rolinski Jacek
April-June 2006, 2(2):35-40
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.25847  PMID:17998672
Dendritic cells are the most potent 'professional' antigen- presenting cells, with high ability of primary immune response initiation. Dendritic cells originate from bone marrow progenitors, which circulate in peripheral blood and subsequently give rise to immature dendritic cells, which reside in peripheral tissues. When dendritic cells encounter danger signals, they undergo differentiation and maturation; thereafter they migrate to lymphatic tissues, where they synapse with T-cells and initiate primary immune response. The immune response efficiency is determined by Th1/Th2 balance. Although dendritic cells represent a rare group of leukocytes, their functional and phenotypical heterogeneity confer a great challenge to immunologists. In this review, the myeloid and lymphoid development pathways of dendritic cells, are discussed. The heterogeneity of dendritic cells will be reviewed, based on their anatomical locations, phenotypes and functions. This section focuses on blood and lymphoid tissue dendritic cells. Subsequently, the roles of dendritic cells in the immunity of cancer and how cancer bypasses the dendritic cell-mediated immune responses, are discussed.
  10 10,543 1,365
A prospective and randomized study of radiotherapy, sequential chemotherapy radiotherapy and concomitant chemo therapy-radiotherapy in unresectable non small cell carcinoma of the lung
Anirban Dasgupta, Chandan Dasgupta, Siddhartha Basu, Anup Majumdar
April-June 2006, 2(2):47-51
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.25849  PMID:17998674
Purpose: Treatment of advanced Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) often produces dismal results. Combination of available treatment modalities has reportedly improved the outcome. A prospectively randomized trial was conducted, comparing combined treatment modalities versus radiotherapy alone, in treatment of unresectable NSCLC. Materials and Methods: A total of 103 patients were randomized to three groups. In group 'A', 32 patients received radiotherapy alone (6500 cGy/30 fraction). In group 'B', 35 patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Cisplatin 80 mg/m2 on day 1 and Etoposide 100 mg/m day 1-3 intravenously q3 weeks for 3 cycles), followed by radiotherapy (6000 cGy/30 fractions) and 3 more cycles of Chemotherapy, with the same regimen. In group 'C', 36 patients received radiotherapy (5000 cGy/25 fractions) with concurrent chemotherapy (ciplatin 20 mg/m2 + Etoposide 75 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1-5 and day 22-26), followed by 2 more cycles of chemotherapy,q3 weeks with the same regimen. Results: Initial treatment responses were significantly higher in group 'B' ( P <0.05) and 'C' ( P <0.03), compared to group 'A'. Follow- up observations showed, that addition of chemotherapy brought down distant metastasis's from 62.5% (group 'A') to 48.6% (group 'B') and 44.4% (group 'C'). The median time to tumour progression also improved from 16 months (Group 'A') to 21 months (Group 'B' and 'C'). But 2 year follow up did not show any survival benefit. Acute toxicities were more frequent in group 'B' and 'C', but were manageable. Conclusion: Addition of chemotherapy with radiation in unresectable NSCLC improves response rates, time to tumour progression and disease free survival, though the same effect is not translated in overall survival.
  9 6,063 586
Adjuvant radiation therapy in gall bladder cancers: 10 years experience at Tata Memorial Hospital
Umesh M Mahantshetty, SR Palled, R Engineer, G Homkar, SK Shrivastava, PJ Shukla
April-June 2006, 2(2):52-56
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.25850  PMID:17998675
Introduction and Purpose: In gall bladder cancers, even after curative surgery, survivals are dismal and loco-regional failure accounts for 40-86%. Although these are considered radio-resistant, adjuvant radiation, with or without chemotherapy, has been tried to improve loco-regional control and overall survival rates. With an aim to evaluate the natural history of gall bladder cancers, role of radiation therapy (RT) and prognostication, a retrospective analysis was undertaken. Materials and Methods: Between 1991-2000, 60 patients with gall bladder cancer, treated with radical intent, were evaluated. Patients details including history, physical examination, liver function tests, ultrasonography of the abdomen and chest X-ray; and CT scan Abdomen if done, were noted. In patients who underwent surgery, surgical details, histopathology and pathological staging, were recorded. The details of post-operative adjuvant treatment, including radiation therapy details, as well as chemotherapeutic agents, number of cycles and type of infusion [bolus/infusion], were noted. Results: Sixty patients underwent surgery. On histopathological staging, 28 patients (46.5%) had stage II, 19 (32%) had stage III, 12 (20%) had stage-I and 1 patient had stage IV disease. Thirteen (21%) patents did not receive any adjuvant treatment, 32 (53%) patients received adjuvant RT alone, 8(14%) received post-operative CT+RT and 7 (12%) patients received CT alone. With a median follow-up of 18 months (12-124 months), 27 (45%) patients were disease free, 11 (19%) had local failures, 7 (11%) had loco-regional, 7 (11%) loco-regional+ distant, 4 (7%) distant and 4 (7%) patients had local+ distant failures. The Overall Disease Free Survival (DFS) and overall survival was 30% and 25%, at 5 years, respectively. Stage grouping (' P' =0.007), Pathological T (' P '= 0.01) had significant impact on DFS on univariate analysis, where as histological grade (' P '= 0.06) showed trend towards significance. Conclusion: Gall bladder cancers are aggressive and lethal. Early diagnosis and curative surgery, followed by appropriate adjuvant radiation therapy, may improve survivals, with no established consensus till date. Following curative surgery, pathological T stage and stage grouping, are the significant prognostic factors for outcome.
  8 7,300 590
Role of adjuvant radiotherapy in metaplastic matrix producing breast cancer: A case study with review of literature
Piyush Kumar, Tanu Agarwal, Narendra Krishnani, Shalini Singh, Niloy R Datta
April-June 2006, 2(2):74-75
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.25855  PMID:17998680
A rare and unique variant of breast cancer - metaplastic matrix producing carcinoma, is presented. Surgery has been the mainstay of treatment. The role of adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy, as has been used in this patient, has been reviewed.
  4 7,181 477
A typical presentation of acute myeloid leukemia
N Udayakumar, C Rajendiran, R Muthuselvan
April-June 2006, 2(2):82-84
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.25858  PMID:17998683
A young man who presented with fever, altered sensorium and sudden onset tachypnea, is described. Arterial blood gas analysis, revealed the presence of severe high anion gap metabolic acidosis, with compensatory respiratory alkalosis and normal oxygen saturation. A detailed neurological, nephrological, biochemical and hematological evaluation, revealed the presence of Acute myeloid leukemia, with lactic acidosis and hyponatremia. There are very few reports of presentation of leukemia as lactic acidosis. This case report highlights the need for emergency room physicians, to consider the possibility of lactic acidosis, as one of the causes of high anion gap acidosis and to meticulously investigate the cause of lactic acidosis. We describe a rare clinical instance of lactic acidosis as the presenting manifestation of Acute myeloid leukemia.
  3 9,696 457
Imatinib mesylate induces responses in patients with liver metastases from gastrointestinal stromal tumor failing intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy
Giammaria Fiorentini, Paolo Bernardeschi, Sussana Rossi, Patrizia Dentico, Mauro Biancalani, Gloria Giustarini, Gina Turrisi
April-June 2006, 2(2):68-71
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.25853  PMID:17998678
Background: Imatinib mesylate represents a real major paradigm shift in cancer therapy, targeting the specific molecular abnormalities, crucial in the etiology of tumor. Intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy (IAHC) followed by embolization, has been considered an interesting palliative option for patients with liver metastases from gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), due to the typically hypervascular pattern of the tumor. Aims: We report our experience with IAHC followed by Imatinib mesylate, in order to show the superiority of the specific molecular approach in liver metastases from GIST. Materials and Methods: Three patients (pts) with pretreated massive liver metastases from GIST, received IAHC with Epirubicin 50 mg/mq, every 3 weeks for 6 cycles. At the evidence of progression, they received Imatinib mesylate. Results: We observed progressive diseases in all cases. In 1998, one patient underwent Thalidomide at 150 mg orally, every day for 4 months, with evidence of stable disease and clinical improvement. In 2001, two patients received Imatinib mesylate at 400 mg orally, every day, with evidence of partial response lasting 18+ months and 16 months. One of them had grade 3 neutropenia, with suspension of therapy for 3 weeks. Conclusion: No patient treated with IAHC, reported objective responses, but two of them obtained partial response after the assumption of Imatinib mesylate and one showed temporary stabilization with thalidomide. Imatinib mesylate represents a new opportunity in GIST therapy, targeting the specific molecular alteration. It seems to be superior to conventional intra arterial hepatic chemotherapy.
  1 5,704 367
Textbook of radiation oncology: Principles and practice
Amit Jain
April-June 2006, 2(2):85-85
  - 4,465 335
Cervical lymphoma presenting as irregular vaginal bleeding
Sudeep Gupta, Amita Maheshwari, Girdhar S Bhati, Sangeeta Desai, Hemant B Tongaonkar
April-June 2006, 2(2):72-73
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.25854  PMID:17998679
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) causes many deaths worldwide and its incidence is increasing. They commonly occur in middle-aged and elderly people and are disseminated at diagnosis. The patients usually present with lymphadenopathy, fever, night sweats and weight loss. We report an interesting case of NHL in a 35 year old female, who primarily presented with irregular bleeding per vaginum.
  - 14,594 299
Why India is cold to heat
Nagraj G Huilgol
April-June 2006, 2(2):31-31
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.25845  PMID:17998670
  - 2,896 166
4 lines to 4 dimensions: The challenges ahead
Niloy R Datta
April-June 2006, 2(2):32-34
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.25846  PMID:17998671
  - 3,791 208
Radiation injury to the spinal cord in head and neck cancers: Does field arrangement have a role
Munshi Anusheel, Ramachandran Prabhakar, Bidhu Kalyan Mohanti
April-June 2006, 2(2):65-67
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.25852  PMID:17998677
Study Design: A study of eight cases of head and neck cancers, to see if the cord was getting a higher dose in the antero-posterior (A-P) fields, compared to the bilateral(B/L) fields. Objective: Radiation damage to the spinal cord is a critical issue for the radiation oncologists. This study was conducted to evaluate, if the dose to the spinal cord is higher by the antero-posterior (A-P) fields, compared to the bilateral(B/L) fields. Materials and Methods: Eight cases of head and neck cancer were taken in our study. Two beam arrangements were placed in the treatment planning system, the B/L and the A-P fields. The DVH's for the cord dose were recorded and compared in both plans, with a standard fraction size of 200cGy/fraction. Results: The mean dose to the spinal cord was 168.06cGy in A-P arrangement, while it was 133.75cGy in the B/L arrangement. Conclusion: A-P field arrangement in head and neck malignancies delivers a higher dose to the spinal cord. Therefore, we need to spare the cord at an earlier dose limit.
  - 7,849 310