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   2005| April-June  | Volume 1 | Issue 2  
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Custom-made nipple prosthesis: A long-term satisfaction survey
Simon Janes
April-June 2005, 1(2):111-113
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.16712  PMID:17998638
BACKGROUND: Nipple-areola reconstruction or prosthesis completes the process of breast reconstruction. Although custom made nipple prosthesis (CNP) have been used for almost 10 years, little follow-up data on patient satisfaction is available. We assessed long-term patient satisfaction with CNP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients undergoing CNP from 2000 to 2001 were sent anonymous postal questionnaires. Perceived benefit and satisfaction with size, colour, and projection, were assessed using a modified Likart scale (1 not satisfied, 5 very satisfied). Results are expressed as median and interquartile range (IQR). RESULTS: Of 52 patients who had CNP, 29 responded to the questionnaire (56% response rate), median age (IQR) 56.1 years (52-61). The median time since CNP was 2 years (0.6-3), 67% felt they had benefited from the prosthesis and 39% wore their CNP regularly. Most patients were highly satisfied with CNP size, colour and projection, median score 5 (4-5) for each variable. Patients with CNP < 3 years were more likely to be satisfied with CNP than those with CNP for = 3 years, 60% vs 18%, p = 0.04. Patients who were satisfied with their CNP (median age 52.9 years, IQR 45.3-59.2 years), were younger than patients not satisfied with their CNP (median age 59 years, IQR 54.7-62 years), p = 0.031, Z = -2.16. Three patients had subsequent nipple reconstruction, a further 7 (24%) wanted nipple reconstruction. All respondents thought CNP should be offered at the time of initial surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients are highly satisfied with CNP, with highest satisfaction in the first 3 years after CNP. CNP should be offered at the time of initial surgery.
  12,708 408 -
A three way complex translocation (4;9;22) in two patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia
Frenny J Sheth, Jayesh J Sheth, Alain Verhest
April-June 2005, 1(2):108-110
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.16711  PMID:17998637
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is genetically characterized by the reciprocal translocation of chromosome 9 and 22, t(9;22)(q34;q11) which results in the fusion of BCR/ABL gene observed on the derivative chromosome 22 called Philadelphia (Ph') chromosome. About 5-8% of Philadelphia positive patients with CML show various complex translocations involving third chromosome in addition to chromosome 9 and 22. In present report we discuss two cases with CML referred at our centre. At the time of initial diagnosis and after 9 months of treatment, one of the patients showed 100% presence of Philadelphia positive in bone marrow culture. During follow-up in an accelerated state, his cytogenetic study revealed a complex translocation (4;9;22)(q25;q34;q11) along with an additional Philadelphia and marker chromosome. The second patient showed a complex (4;9;22)(q25;q34;q11) translocation at the time of diagnosis. He was on hydroxyurea and his follow-up cytogenetic study after the course of chemotherapy showed no changes. Further confirmation of complex translocation was done by FISH study using bcr/abl and whole chromosome 9 probes. Though the additional genes involved in complex variant Ph' rearrangements have not been characterized, both patients are healthy till 3 to 5 years of initial diagnosis. This could be attributed to the benign effect resulted from reciprocal translocation with no loss or gain of the genetic material.
  9,654 598 3
Fighting cancer is half the battle... living life is the other half
Manasi Pahwa, Nandita Babu, Sushma Bhatnagar
April-June 2005, 1(2):98-102
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.16709  PMID:17998635
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the psychological and social problems the terminally ill are facing in India. Another objective of this study was to explore the Locus of Control and Depression. AIMS: The study was conducted on an incidentally available sample of fifteen terminally ill patients at the Pain Clinic, I.R.C.H., AIIMS, ranging from young adults (30-35 years), to middle aged (40-50 years), to the elderly (55-65 years). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A thematic and narrative analysis was done using semi-structured interview. After the semi-structured interview, two standardized inventories were administered. The two inventories used were Multidimensional Health Locus of Control, and Beck's Depression Inventory. The statements from the two inventories were translated into Hindi and then asked. The inventories were not given as a questionnaire to be filled; rather they were asked orally and marked by the investigator. RESULTS: The co-relation between Internal Health Locus of Control and Depression was found to be significant below the 0.05 level. Statistics also revealed that a large number of participants were either severely depressed (33.33%) or extremely depressed (20%). The seven common themes running through all the narratives were identified; Concern for physical pain; Anxiety and Depression; Body-image problems; Social withdrawal; Disease viewed as bad 'karma'; Desire for hastened death; and lastly Hope. CONCLUSION: This article would create greater awareness among all the concerned people working with cancer patients on what intervention strategies should be utilized to help the patients, as well as, how the belief in karma can help gain a more positivistic outlook towards death and the core role spirituality and the belief in karma can play in the counseling of the patients and their families.
  9,553 605 7
Use of Rt-PCR in detecting disseminated cancer cells after incisional biopsy among oral squamous cell carcinoma patients
Pratibha Ramani, George Thomas, Shaheen Ahmed
April-June 2005, 1(2):92-97
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.16708  PMID:17998634
PURPOSE: Tumour metastasis is the most clinically significant and enigmatic aspect of tumour behavior and is an unequivocal hallmark of malignancy. Until recent years little has been known about the transportation phase of vascular dissemination during biopsy, because of the technical difficulties in demonstrating circulating cancer cells. AIMS: This study examined whether cancer cell dissemination results from incisional biopsy in the peripheral blood by using Cytokeratin 19(CK-19) as the marker for Reverse Transcriptase- Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). In-house recipes without utilizing kits were employed to extract genomic and total RNA to make the procedure user friendly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of n=10patients who were clinically diagnosed for oral squamous cell carcinoma and who had not undergone any previous biopsies. 5 patients who were to undergo incisional biopsies for benign conditions served as controls.5 ml of blood aspirates were collected before and within 15 minutes after incisional biopsy. CK-19 gene and a positive control gene β actin were isolated to confirm the primers. Using the total RNA, RT-PCR was performed for β actin and Ck 19 gene expression. RESULTS: Rt-PCR did show any expression for the CK-19 gene. CONCLUSION: In conclusion there was no evidence of dissemination of cancer cells in our study and the patients are on a regular follow up for the past one and half years. But larger sample size should be examined to make the procedure a diagnostic tool for cancer metastasis
  8,490 652 8
Magnetic resonance imaging in carcinoma cervix- Does it have a prognostic relevance
Tejinder Kataria Sethi, NK Bhalla, AN Jena, S Rawat, R Oberoi
April-June 2005, 1(2):103-107
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.16710  PMID:17998636
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic relevance of tumor size as determined on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in cervical cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 70 consecutive patients were included in the study. 15 patients underwent surgery alone (Group A), 27 patients underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiation (Group B), 14 patients underwent concomitant chemo radiation (Group C), and 14 patients underwent radical radiation alone (Group D). External radiation was delivered followed by intra cavitary brachytherapy. Serial MRI scans were performed in all patients before and after completion of treatment on a 1.0 Tesla MRI scanner. Patients were divided into three groups based upon MR volumes < 40 cc, 40-99 cc and > 100 cc. A correlation between MR volume, FIGO stage, disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) was done. Disease free and overall survivals were calculated using Kaplan Meier survival curves according to stage, MR volume and treatment protocol. RESULTS: In group I (MR volume < 40 cc), 44% of patients had stage I disease, 47% of patients with stage II and 9% patients had stage III disease. In group II (MR volume 40-99 cc), 35% patients had stage I, 45% had stage II disease and 10% had stage III and IV disease each. In group III (MR volume > 100 cc), 57% patients had stage II, 14% had stage III and 29% patients had stage IV disease. The DFS and OS did not achieve a level of statistical significance when evaluated as per protocol [DFS at p = 0.0685 and OS p = 0.3242], however a statistical significance was seen when DFS and OS were evaluated according to MR volumes [DFS, p = 0.0015 and OS, p = 0.0001]. CONCLUSION: In cervical cancer, the volume of disease as assessed on MRI may be a better prognostic indicator than FIGO staging and needs further evaluation.
  7,797 590 5
Dose uniformity assessment of intraluminal brachytherapy using HDR 192Ir stepping source
Narayan Prasad Patel, Bishnu Majumdar, Pradeep K Hota, Dayanidhi Singh
April-June 2005, 1(2):84-91
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.16707  PMID:17998633
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to achieve dose uniformity for intraluminal implants by assessment of dose distributions for single catheter generated by using various combinations of source stopping spacing and optimization mode. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A dose distribution was generated using HDR 192Ir stepping source on single straight catheter of fixed length used for Intraluminal brachytherapy. The various combinations of source position spacing and optimization mode were used and these dose distributions were evaluated by using three different parameters. The source position spacings were 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.4, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.3 cm. Three different optimization modes that compute the source stopping times along the catheter were used. The parameters used for assessment of dose distributions were statistical analysis of doses to dose reference points, area under natural dose-volume histogram and the dose non-uniformity ratio. RESULTS: None of the combinations of source position spacing and optimization mode was able to generate the desired optimum uniform dose distribution. However in a discrete manner, comparatively higher uniform dose distribution was found with short (0.2 cm) and longer (1.5 to 2.0 cm) source spacing. Optimization mode of Iterative correction was found to be suitable for the single catheter used in intraluminal brachytherapy. Conclusion: The applicator dimension and irradiation target volume should be taken in to consideration while selecting either higher or smaller source position spacing for the single catheter intraluminal brachytherapy. The Anisotropy factor of the source has some role in the variation of the dose uniformity over the target volume.
  7,652 361 -
Brachytherapy - Perspectives in evolution: Take it with a bag of salt...
Shyam Shrivastava
April-June 2005, 1(2):73-74
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.16704  PMID:17998630
  7,642 322 2
AK-2123 (Sanazol) as a radiation sensitizer in the treatment of stage iii cancer cervix: Initial results of an IAEA multicentre randomized trial
Werner Dobrowsky, Nagraj G Huigol, Ranapala S Jayatilake, Noor-I-Alam Kizilbash, Sait Okkan, Tsutomu V Kagiya, Hideo Tatsuzaki
April-June 2005, 1(2):75-78
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.16705  PMID:17998631
PURPOSE : AK-2123, a nitrotriazole hypoxic cell sensitizer has reportedly improved results in head and neck cancers, uterine cervical cancers and other solid tumours when added to radical radiotherapy. A prospectively randomised trial was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) evaluating AK-2123 and radiotherapy in treatment of uterine cervical cancer stage IIIA and IIIB. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A total of 333 patients were randomised between May1995 and December1998. Patients were randomised to either standard radical treatment (radiation therapy alone, RT) or standard radical radiotherapy and additional administration of AK-2123 (RT+AK-2123). The total dose of 45-50.8 Gy was delivered in 20 to 28 fractions over 4 to 5 1/2 weeks. The dose to the central disease was escalated to a radiobiologically equivalent dose of 70 Gy by external beam or brachytherapy, in accordance with each centres individual practice. In the study arm, patients received 0.6 g/sqm AK-2123 by intravenous administration before external beam radiotherapy, treating with AK-2123 on alternate days (e.g. Monday-Wednesday-Friday) during the entire course of external beam therapy . RESULTS: After a median follow up of 57 months (range 30-73 months) the rate of local tumour control was significantly higher in the group who received radiotherapy and additional administration of AK-2123. Local tumour control at the last follow up was 61% after combined radiotherapy and AK-2123 and 46% after radiotherapy alone (p = 0.005). AK-2123 neither increased gastro-intestinal toxicity nor gave any haematological toxicity. A mild peripheral neuropathy (Grade 1:11% and Grade 2:3%) was seen infrequently after AK-2123 administration and was usually completely reversible. Crude survival rates were 41% after radical treatment compared to 57% after combined therapy (p = 0.007) CONCLUSION : We conclude that the addition of AK-2123 to radical radiotherapy significantly increases response rates and local tumour control in advanced squamous cell cancer of the uterine cervix without any increase in major toxicity. Further analysis and follow up are needed to evaluate if this benefit will translate into prolonged survival. We strongly suggest that our initially very promising study should lead other centres to further studies of AK-2123 in randomised clinical trials.
  7,358 470 9
Role of template guided interstitial implants in breast conservation therapy
Satish K Srinivas, KS Reddy, S Vivekanandam, V Parthasarathy
April-June 2005, 1(2):79-83
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.16706  PMID:17998632
Breast conservation therapy is currently considered as a viable alternative to mastectomy in early breast cancer. Radiotherapy by virtue of its ability to reduce local recurrences is an integral component of breast conservation therapy. Apart from irradiating the whole breast, the tumor bed is usually delivered a boost dose in breast conservation therapy to increase the local control rate. One of the methods which has been adopted to selectively boost the tumor bed to high doses is the use of per-operative high dose rate interstitial implants. This particular paper deals with our department's experience with breast conservation therapy using per-operative template guided, High Dose Rate (HDR) interstitial implants in early breast cancer. Local control rates, disease free survival and cosmetic benefit with this technique will be discussed along with literature review.
  6,345 339 1
Archimedes' principle for the correction of breast asymmetry
Simon Janes
April-June 2005, 1(2):114-114
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.16713  PMID:17998639
  6,076 303 3
Number game & reality
Nagraj G Huilgol
April-June 2005, 1(2):71-72
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.16703  PMID:17998629
  3,407 156 -
Nagraj G Huilgol
April-June 2005, 1(2):117-117
  2,895 143 -