Salivary detection of high-risk human papillomavirus 16 in oral squamous cell carcinoma using polymerase chain reaction in the South Indian population
Soujanya L Krishnappa1, Chaya M David1, BK Ramnarayan1, Alekhya Kanaparthi2, Suprith L Krishnappa3, Divya Dukkireddy4
1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Dayananda Sagar College of Dental Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, MNR Dental College and Hospital, Sangareddy, Telangana, India
3 Department of ENT, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Dayananda Sagar College of Dental Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, MNR Dental College and Hospital, Sangareddy - 502 001, Telangana
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Human papilloma virus (HPV) has been associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as a potential carcinogen. There are several types of HPV, of which type 16 has been strongly implicated in carcinogenesis. HPV16 in saliva can potentially facilitate early detection of subclinical cases that may warrant further diagnosis, monitoring and intervention.
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of HPV 16 in saliva and lesional tissue of OSCC and to determine the use of saliva as an alternative non invasive diagnostic tool in HPV16 identification.
Materials and methods: 30 cases of Histopathologically confirmed OSCC with HPV positive on ELISA were taken up for the study. The tumour tissue and saliva sample of each patient were obtained to detect the presence of specific HPV16 genotype by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The data was subjected to statistical analysis using Student t-test.
Results: In our study we found 28/30, 26/30 positive for HPV 16 in tissue and saliva samples respectively on PCR analysis. The P value was statistically significant (0.00).
Conclusion: The study revealed significant prevalence of HPV 16 among both tissue and salivary specimens of OSCC patients in south Indian population. Though, the yielded content was relatively less in saliva, it can be concluded that, saliva being a non invasive tool proved to be as useful as tissue specimen and can be used as an alternative indicator of HPV16 positivity in OSCC.