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Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis mimicking advanced gallbladder carcinoma – Analysis of 8 cases


1 Department of Pathology, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Surgery, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Sabina Khan,
Department of Pathology, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi - 110 062
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_1180_19

Background/Aim: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a rare destructive inflammatory disease of the gallbladder. It is frequently misdiagnosed as gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) as it mimics latter with regard to clinical manifestations, imaging and intraoperative findings, often leading to extended surgical resection in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic dilemma of XGC cases clinico-radiologically diagnosed with GBC. Materials and Methods: From January 2017 to June 2019, a total of eight cases histopathologically diagnosed as XGC, were misdiagnosed with GBC based on preoperative and intra-operative findings. The clinical characteristics, imaging, intra-operative findings, and surgical data of these patients were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 2154 cholecystectomy specimens were received in the histopathology section during the study period. Sixty-nine cases (3.2%) were histologically diagnosed as XGC, of which 8 cases (11.6%) were preoperatively diagnosed with GBC. These cases were predominantly seen in males in the age range of 24–62 years. The most common clinical presentation was chronic cholecystitis. Gallstones were present in all the 8 cases. Six cases presented with heterogeneous enhancement within thickened gallbladder walls on imaging. Intraoperatively, adhesions to adjacent organs were observed in seven cases. All these eight cases misdiagnosed with GBC underwent aggressive surgical treatment following which histopathology ultimately revealed XGC. Conclusion: Neither clinical manifestations nor laboratory tests/radiological methods can provide an effective means of differentiating between XGC and GBC. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult, and histopathology remains the gold standard to differentiate the two entities.


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