Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
Ahead of Print

Knowledge, awareness, and practice of breast self-examination among females in Mosul city, Iraq

1 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Mosul, Ninevah, Iraq
2 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Mosul, Ninevah, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
Harith Khalid Al-Qazaz,
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Mosul, Ninevah 81011
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_736_19

Aims: This study is carried out to report on the knowledge and practice regarding breast self-examination (BSE) among women from the city of Mosul in Iraq and to evaluate the prevalence of performing clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography among them. Settings and Design: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey carried out among females working in the University of Mosul, as a sample of the female population of Mosul city. Subjects and Methods: The sample was collected conveniently, and the data were collected from July to November 2018. Data were collected by interviews with 405 participants. Knowledge answers were scored and categorized into two groups: good and poor level of knowledge. Results: A final sample of 384 participants were included in the analysis, with a mean age of 42.58 ± 8.9. Only 39 (10.1%) and 37 (9.6%) participants performed mammographic examination and CBE of their breasts, respectively. Just 100 (30.3%) of the 330 females who knew BSE performed BSE routinely or intermittently. The mean knowledge score was 4.22 ± 1.66, and only 141 females (42.7%) were found to have a good level of knowledge. A statistically significant association of knowledge level with marital status (P = 0.015), perceived benefit of BSE (P = 0.001), previous gain of instructions of BSE (P < 0.05), and the provider (P < 0.05) was found. Conclusions: The performance results of BSE were poor as well as for CBE and mammography among the study participants. There is a need for educational programs to create awareness and improve knowledge about routine breast cancer screening behavior.

Print this article
  Search Pubmed for
    -  Al-Qazaz HK
    -  Yahya NA
    -  Ibrahim DK
 Citation Manager
 Article Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded1    

Recommend this journal