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Transcriptional elucidation of tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated nuclear factor-κB1 activation in breast cancer cohort of Pakistan

 Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

Correspondence Address:
Muhammad Faraz Arshad Malik,
Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_484_18

Background: Initiation, promotion, progression, and metastasis of mammary tumors are mediated by dysregulation of multiple genes involved in various signaling pathways. Expressional variation of these molecules significantly influences cancer cell proliferation in breast cancer. Aims and Objectives: In the current study, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and its downstream effector nuclear factor kappa-B1 (NF-κB1) mean transcript levels were explored and associated with molecular subtypes in breast cancer cohort of Pakistan. Freshly excised tumors (n = 150) along with background tissues were collected for RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis. Materials and Methods: Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was carried out for quantification of TNF-α, NF-κB1, and β-actin gene transcripts along with estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2, and Ki-67, followed by statistical analysis. Results: For TNF-α and NF-κB1, 95% and 77% of the cohort was found to be positive, respectively. Both of these molecules were found to be significantly upregulated in tumors when compared against their respective controls (P < 0.0001). Association of TNF-α and NF-κB1 with late clinical stages, poorly differentiated tumors, increased tumor size, nodal involvement, and metastasis was observed to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Strong positive correlation was established between TNF-α and NF-κB1(r = 0.465, P< 0.05). Moreover, mean transcript levels of TNF-α and NF-κB1 were significantly elevated in Luminal A and Luminal B subtypes of breast cancer patients, respectively. Conclusion: Strong positive correlation between TNF-α and NF-κB1 proposed the putative role of these molecules as prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer.

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