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Male breast cancer: Outcome with adjuvant treatment

1 Department of Radiation Oncology, Regional Cancer Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Radiation Oncology, M.M. Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Ambala, Haryana, India
3 CMC, General Surgery, Sector-17, Chandigarh, India
4 Department of General Surgery, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India
5 Department of Radiation Oncology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Budhi Singh Yadav,
Department of Radiation Oncology, Regional Cancer Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_1305_16

Introduction: Male breast cancer (MBC) incidence is <1%, but it is increasing. MBC incidence increases with age. There are no randomized trials on MBC because of low number of patients seen in any institution and hence its management is derived from breast cancer (BC) in women. In this study, we analyzed outcome in MBC patients with adjuvant treatment. Materials and Methods: From 1991 to 2014, 81 men with BC were retrospectively analyzed for demographic, clinicopathological, and treatment outcomes. Disease-free survival (DFS) was defined as time duration from diagnosis to first recurrence. Overall survival (OS) was defined as time duration from pathologic diagnosis to death or last follow-up with any death defined as an event. DFS and OS were estimated using Kaplan–Meier method and compared between patients receiving and not receiving adjuvant treatment using log-rank test. Results: The median age was 57 years (range 30–86 years). Right, left, and bilateral BCs were seen in 41 (51%), 38 (47%), and 2 (2%) men, respectively. The mean duration of symptoms was 25 months (range 1–240 months). Comorbidity and family history was present in 31 (38%) and 3 (4%) men, respectively. The mean tumor size was 5 cm × 5 cm (range, 1 cm × 1 cm to 10 cm × 10 cm). Nipple was involved in 46 (57%) men. Early, locally advanced, and metastatic disease were seen in 30 (37%), 34 (42%), and 17 (21%) men, respectively. Majority (71, 88%) of men had invasive ductal carcinoma histology. In radically treated 64 men, neoadjuvant chemotherapy was given to 12 (19%) patients (fluorouracil, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide [FAC] to 9 and FAC + taxanes to 3), with CR in 4 (33.3%) and partial response (PR) in 8 (66.7%) patients. Mastectomy was done in 55 (86%) and wide local excision in 9 (14%) men. Margins and nodes were positive in 17 (27%) and 38 (59%) men, respectively. Estrogen receptor, PR, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu positive were seen in 27 (42%), 17 (26.5%), and 2 (3%) patients, respectively. Adjuvant hypofractionated radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and tamoxifen were received by 51 (80%), 35 (55%), and 45 (70%) men, respectively. Median follow-up was 60 months (range 4–278 months). Locoregional recurrence occurred in 8 (12.5%) and distant metastasis in 22 (34%) men, respectively. DFS and OS at 10 years were 42% and 53%, respectively. DFS and OS were significantly better in men with adjuvant radiation (54% vs. 24%, P = 0.007 and 57% vs. 35%, P = 0.022, respectively) and hormonal therapy (57% vs. 14.5%, P = 0.004 and 62% vs. 39%, P = 0.045, respectively). Chemotherapy had no impact on DFS and OS. Conclusion: Adjuvant hypofractionated radiotherapy and hormonal therapy significantly improved DFS and OS in MBC patients. Chemotherapy had no impact on DFS and OS.

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