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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 62-68

In vitro cytotoxicity of cardamom oil, lemon oil, and jasmine oil on human skin, gastric, and brain cancer cell line


Department of Pharmacology, H.K.E. Society's Matoshree Taradevi Rampure Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Chetan Manjunath
Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology, H.K.E. Society's Matoshree Taradevi Rampure Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sedam Road, Gulbarga - 585 105, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_915_17

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Objective: The main objective of the study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of selected essential oils on human skin, gastric, and brain cancer cell lines using microculture tetrazolium test. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical analysis, as well as acute oral toxicity tests, was carried out in female albino mice with cardamom oil, lemon oil, and jasmine oil according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines 425. Anticancer activities of the above test drugs were performed using human cancer cell lines. The studies were carried out at Skanda Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd., Bengaluru. Results: Phytochemical analysis has shown the presence of carbohydrates and flavonoids in cardamom oil. While lemon oil has shown the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, and tannins, jasmine oil has shown the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, and glycosides. Toxicity studies showed that cardamom oil, lemon oil, and jasmine oil were all found to be safe up to 2000 mg/kg body weight. Results have shown that lemon oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity toward three human cancer cell lines, namely skin cancer (A431), gastric cancer (MKN-45), and brain cancer (U-87 MG) cell lines, with higher IC50 values of 62.82 μg/ml, 220.9 μg/ml, and 440.1 μg/ml compared to standard. Jasmine oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity toward skin cancer and brain cancer cell lines, whereas cardamom oil has shown stronger cytotoxicity only toward skin cancer cell line but did not show any level of inhibition of growth of brain and gastric cancer cells. Conclusion: Our study reveals that lemon oil, jasmine oil, and cardamom oil possess potent antitumor activity compared to standard. At different concentrations, lemon oil has shown statistically significant (***P < 0.0001) anticancer activity toward all the three human cancer cell lines. While jasmine oil has shown statistically significant (***P < 0.0001) anticancer activity toward skin and brain cancer cell line, cardamom oil has also shown statistically significant (***P < 0.0001) anticancer activity but only toward skin cancer cell line.


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