|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 5 | Page : 960-966
Expert consensus workshop report: Guidelines for thermal ablation of thyroid tumors (2019 edition)
Dong Xu1, Minghua Ge2, Ankui Yang3, Ruochuan Cheng4, Hui Sun5, Hongcheng Wang6, Jianquan Zhang7, Zhigang Cheng8, Zeyu Wu9, Zhongmin Wang10, Bo Zhai11, Yin Che12, Lin Chen13, Liyu Chen1, Wen Cheng14, Gang Dong15, Peiyan Duan16, Weijun Fan17, Jian Fei18, Rongzhan Fu19, Meizhuo Gao20, Pintong Huang21, Tianan Jiang22, Jian Kuang23, Honghao Li24, Ping Li25, Xinying Li26, Zhihui Li27, Man Lu28, Yukun Luo8, Huadong Qin28, Jianwu Qin29, Zhuo Tan2, Lina Tang30, Zhaohui Wang31, Shurong Wang32, Xiaoping Wang33, Gaosong Wu34, Xiaoyan Xie35, Haimiao Xu36, Detao Yin37, Xinguang Qiu37, Y Jichun38, Jianjun Yu39, Weiwei Zhan40, Fujun Zhang17, Junqing Zhang41, Rongqin Zheng42, Xiangqian Zheng43, Yuanyi Zheng44, Youhua Zhu45, Yinghua Zou46, Zhiqiang Meng47, Xin Ye48, Hailiang Li49, Xiao Li50, Zhengyu Lin51, Lijing Wang1, Liping Wang1, Chen Yang1, Yifan Wang1, Linyan Zhou1, Di Ou1, Jiafeng Wang2, Ming Gao43, Huixiong Xu52, Ping Liang8, Gaojun Teng53
1 Department of Ultrasound, Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital), Institute of Cancer and Basic Medicine (IBMC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
2 Department of Surgical, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, China
3 Department of Surgery, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, China
4 Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, China
5 Department of Surgery, Sino-Japanese Friendship Hospital of Jilin University, China
6 Department of Surgery, The Second People's Hospital of Fujian Province, China
7 Department of Ultrasound, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, China
8 Department of Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, China
9 Department of Surgery, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, China
10 Department of Invasive Therapy, Affiliated Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, China
11 Department of Surgery, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine Renji Hospital, China
12 Department of Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, China
13 Department of Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, China
14 Department of Surgery, Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Harbin Medical University, China
15 Department of Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, China
16 Department of Surgery, Zhuhai People's Hospital, China
17 Intervention Therapy Department, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, China
18 Department of Surgery, Affiliated Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, China
19 Department of Surgery, Qianfoshan Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, China
20 Department of Surgery, Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, China
21 Department of Ultrasound, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, China
22 Department of Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, China
23 Department of Endocrinology, Guangdong General Hospital, China
24 Department of Surgery, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, China
25 Intervention Therapy Department, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, China
26 Department of Surgery, Xiangya Hospital Central South University, China
27 Department of Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, China
28 Department of Ultrasound, Sichuan Cancer Hospital, China
29 Department of Surgery, Henan Cancer Hospital, China
30 Department of Ultrasound, Fujian Cancer Hospital, China
31 Department of Surgery, Sichuan Cancer Hospital, China
32 Department of Ultrasound, Yantai Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical University, China
33 Department of Surgery, Longhua Hospital Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China
34 Department of Surgery, Tongji Meidical College Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China
35 Department of Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, China
36 Department of Pathology, Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital), China
37 Department of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, China
38 Department of Surgical, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, China
39 Department of Surgery, Ningxia People's Hospital, China
40 Department of Ultrasound, Affiliated Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, China
41 Department of Endocrinology, Peking University First Hospital, China
42 Department of Ultrasound, The third affiliated hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, China
43 Department of Thyroid and Neck Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, China
44 Department of Ultrasound, Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital, China
45 Department of Surgery, Hubei Cancer Hospital, China
46 Department of Surgery, Peking University First Hospital, China
47 Department of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, China
48 Department of Oncology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, China
49 Intervention Therapy Department, Henan Cancer Hospital, China
50 Intervention Therapy Department, Cancer Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China
51 Department of Invasive Therapy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, China
52 Department of Ultrasound, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, China
53 Intervention Therapy Department, Zhongda Hospital Southeast University, China
|Date of Submission||03-Aug-2019|
|Date of Decision||19-Oct-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||31-Mar-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||29-Sep-2020|
Department of Ultrasound, .Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital), Institute of Cancer and Basic Medicine(IBMC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, 310022
Intervention Therapy Department, Zhongda Hospital Southeast University, Nanjing, 210000
Department of Ultrasound, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 200000
Department of Head & Neck Tumor Surgery, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, 310022
Department of Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100000
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
As a treatment option for cancer, thermal ablation has satisfactory effects on many types of solid tumors (such as liver and renal cancers). However, its clinical applications for the treatment of thyroid nodules and metastatic cervical lymph nodes are still under debate both in China and abroad. In 2015, the “Zhejiang Expert consensus on thermal ablation for thyroid benign nodules, microcarcinoma, and metastatic cervical lymph nodes (2015 edition),” was released by the Thyroid Cancer Committee of Zhejiang Anti-Cancer Association, China. To further standardize the application of thermal ablation for thyroid tumors, the Thyroid Tumor Ablation Experts Group of Chinese Medical Doctor Association has organized many seminars and finally produced a consensus to formulate the “Expert consensus workshop report: Guidelines for thermal ablation of thyroid tumors (2019 edition).”
Keywords: Ablation techniques, consensus, guideline, nodular goiter, thyroid neoplasms
|How to cite this article:|
Xu D, Ge M, Yang A, Cheng R, Sun H, Wang H, Zhang J, Cheng Z, Wu Z, Wang Z, Zhai B, Che Y, Chen L, Chen L, Cheng W, Dong G, Duan P, Fan W, Fei J, Fu R, Gao M, Huang P, Jiang T, Kuang J, Li H, Li P, Li X, Li Z, Lu M, Luo Y, Qin H, Qin J, Tan Z, Tang L, Wang Z, Wang S, Wang X, Wu G, Xie X, Xu H, Yin D, Qiu X, Jichun Y, Yu J, Zhan W, Zhang F, Zhang J, Zheng R, Zheng X, Zheng Y, Zhu Y, Zou Y, Meng Z, Ye X, Li H, Li X, Lin Z, Wang L, Wang L, Yang C, Wang Y, Zhou L, Ou D, Wang J, Gao M, Xu H, Liang P, Teng G. Expert consensus workshop report: Guidelines for thermal ablation of thyroid tumors (2019 edition). J Can Res Ther 2020;16:960-6
|How to cite this URL:|
Xu D, Ge M, Yang A, Cheng R, Sun H, Wang H, Zhang J, Cheng Z, Wu Z, Wang Z, Zhai B, Che Y, Chen L, Chen L, Cheng W, Dong G, Duan P, Fan W, Fei J, Fu R, Gao M, Huang P, Jiang T, Kuang J, Li H, Li P, Li X, Li Z, Lu M, Luo Y, Qin H, Qin J, Tan Z, Tang L, Wang Z, Wang S, Wang X, Wu G, Xie X, Xu H, Yin D, Qiu X, Jichun Y, Yu J, Zhan W, Zhang F, Zhang J, Zheng R, Zheng X, Zheng Y, Zhu Y, Zou Y, Meng Z, Ye X, Li H, Li X, Lin Z, Wang L, Wang L, Yang C, Wang Y, Zhou L, Ou D, Wang J, Gao M, Xu H, Liang P, Teng G. Expert consensus workshop report: Guidelines for thermal ablation of thyroid tumors (2019 edition). J Can Res Ther [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 5];16:960-6. Available from: https://www.cancerjournal.net/text.asp?2020/16/5/960/296438
| > Introduction|| |
In recent years, the incidence rate of benign thyroid nodules and thyroid microcarcinoma has showed an upward trend. Surgical operation remains the preferred option for treating thyroid tumors (especially thyroid cancers).,, However, with characteristics such as minor trauma, fast recovery, good repeatability, better appearance, and better preservation of thyroid function, image-guided thermal ablation (radiofrequency [RF], microwave, and laser) has been developed for the treatment of some benign thyroid nodules, low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs), and metastatic cervical lymph nodes in the past few years.,,,,, Since the publication of “Expert consensus on thermal ablation for thyroid benign nodules, microcarcinoma, and metastatic cervical lymph nodes (2015 edition)” in 2016, there have been plenty of discussions on the use of thermal ablation treatment for thyroid nodules.,,, With the passage of time and development of clinical practices, in order to show the new recognition about thermal ablation for thyroid nodules, Chinese experts in this field decided to release this consensus based on the diagnosis and treating principles for thyroid cancers, medical ethics, and Zhejiang consensus (2015 edition). We hope to further improve the diagnosis and treating principles of thyroid benign and malignant nodules, as well as further standardize medical practices.,
| > Preoperative Assessment|| |
Thermal ablation of thyroid nodules is a technical approach that applies the method of in situ inactivation in vivo to achieve local radical cure for cancers. Therefore, preoperative oncology assessment should be a prerequisite for treatment. All patients are required to undertake a needle biopsy in order to obtain satisfactory pathological results before surgery. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy for cytology and the Bethesda reporting system for cytopathology diagnosis are recommended. Core needle biopsy can also be applied for histopathological examination. Benign nodules are those under the FNA Bethesda Class II. As for malignant nodules that meet ablation conditions, a clear diagnosis of FNA is also required for patients to be well informed and make choices before surgeries.
| > Indications and Contraindications|| |
Benign thyroid nodules
Indications should meet item 1 to item 3 at the same time, and meet one of the conditions under item 4.
(1) The nodule is considered benign by ultrasound and finally recognized as Class II by FNA and by cytopathological Bethesda reporting system,[16.17] or it is diagnosed as a benign node by preoperative histological biopsy and pathological examinations; (2) patients have no history of radiotherapy in childhood; (3) patients themselves require to take minimally invasive interventional treatment after being fully informed, or just refuse to undergo surgery or clinical observation; (4) it is necessary to meet one of the following conditions: (1) patients have hyperthyroidism caused by autonomously functioning thyroid nodules; (2) patients have subjective symptoms (e.g., foreign body sensation and uncomfortableness or pain in the cervical region) which are distinctly related to thyroid nodules, or patients who require treatment because of a poor appearance; and (3) nodules recurred after surgery, or their volume increased significantly.,
Contraindications are any single of the following conditions:
(1) A large retrosternal goiter is found or most thyroid nodules are located behind the sternum (for patients who cannot tolerate surgery or anesthesia, fractional ablations or palliative therapy can be considered);, (2) lesion's contralateral vocal cord is dysfunctional; (3) presence of a severe blood coagulation disorder; and (4) dysfunction of important organs.
Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma
There is not enough medical evidence to prove the effectiveness of thermal ablation in the treatment of PTMC, and thus thermal ablation is not recommended as a routine treatment for PTMC. Most experts in this consensus claim that a prospective clinical study should be carried out to explore the effectiveness and safety of thermal ablation under specific conditions (strictly following relevant laws and regulations, medical ethics, and ethical review processes and ensuring that patients are fully informed). In this way, we can determine whether thermal ablation therapy is suitable for the treatment of thyroid cancer and its indications can also be clarified. However, for doctors to carry out such a study, they must have the title of deputy chief physician or above and must have specialized in the ablation treatment of thyroid cancer for more than 2 years.
Indications should meet the following nine items at the same time.
(1) Nonpathological high-risk subtype;, (2) tumor diameter ≤5 mm (diameter ≤1 cm for tumors surrounding tissues that are not close to the capsule), and the distance between nodules and posterior medial capsule should be >2 mm;, (3) the thyroid capsule should and surrounding tissues should not be invaded;,,, (4) the lesion is not located in the isthmus; (5) no multifocal thyroid cancer; (6) no family history of thyroid cancer; (7) no history of cervical radiation exposure in adolescent period or childhood;, (8) no evidence of lymph node or distant metastasis; and (9) patients refuse to undergo surgery and follow-up visits after being fully informed.
Contraindications include any single of the following conditions:
(1) Metastasis in the cervical region or distant metastasis is found;, (2) the volume of the tumor progressively increases in a short period of time (>3 mm in 6 months); (3) pathological high-risk subtype (high cell subtype, columnar cell subtype, diffuse sclerosis, solid/island type, and eosinophilic subtype);,, (4) lesion's contralateral vocal cord appears dysfunctional; (5) occurrence of a severe blood coagulation disorder; and (6) dysfunction of important organs.
Metastatic cervical lymph nodes
Surgical dissection should be the preferred treatment when metastatic lymph nodes are found at the initial diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Obviously, these patients cannot receive ablation treatments, but for patients who are found to have metastatic cervical lymph nodes after undergoing surgical dissections, there are many guidelines or consensus which consider thermal ablation as a treatment. This consensus believes that surgical treatment is still the preferred treatment for thyroid cancer recurrence and metastatic lymph nodes, but patients with the indications described below can choose thermal ablation treatment after being fully informed.,
Indications should meet the following conditions at the same time:
(1) Cervical lymph nodes have recurred and metastasized after radical treatment; (2) imaging examination suggests metastasis and the metastatic lymph node is diagnosed by FNA; (3) evaluation shows that patients cannot tolerate surgery or they refuse surgical treatments;, (4) the iodine 131 treatment is ineffective for metastatic lymph nodes or patients refuse to take iodine 131 treatment; and (5) metastatic lymph nodes can be separated from large blood vessels, allowing important nerves to have a safe operating space.,
Contraindications should meet one of the following conditions:
(1) The lesion is located in the VI area and lesion's contralateral vocal cord appears dysfunctional; (2) there is a severe blood coagulation disorder; and (3) dysfunction of important organs.
| > Preoperative Preparation|| |
(1) Patients should undergo physical examinations before undergoing surgery and their medical histories should also be taken. For those who have cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, or diabetes, related treatments should be applied to adjust their physical conditions; (2) preoperative examination of routine blood, blood type, urine routine, routine stools, coagulation function, infectious diseases, thyroid function, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, tumor markers, chest radiograph, electrocardiogram, pulmonary function, laryngoscope, cervical enhanced computed tomography/magnetic resonance, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (recommended but not restricted) should be performed; (3) the patient or his/her legal representative should be fully informed of the disease severity, treatment purpose, treatment risk, current treatment status, and alternative treatment methods before surgery, and a signed informed consent must be obtained; (4) patients should be fasted for >4 h before and after surgery. Local anesthesia is usually used for surgery, while local nerve block, general intravenous anesthesia, and acupuncture combined anesthesia can also be selected (or adjusted) according to patients' specific conditions and their pain tolerance; and (5) a venous channel should be established for the intravenous administration.
| > Operational Approaches|| |
(1) A preoperative ultrasound examination from multiple angles and aspects should be performed to identify the lesion's location and size, as well as its relationship with the surrounding tissues. Moreover, the therapeutic scheme and thermal ablation mode or approach also should be developed according to the lesion's size and location; (2) the patient should be placed in supine position to extend the neck, and local anesthesia should be administered from the puncturing point to the peripheral capsule at the thyroid's anterior border, after performing routine disinfection and draping; and (3) 2% of lidocaine or its diluent should be injected between the thyroid anterior capsule and the anterior cervical muscles for local infiltration anesthesia and separation under the guidance of ultrasound. Then, 10–20 ml of normal saline or sterilized water (0.5 mg epinephrine can be added) should be injected between the thyroid outboard capsule and the common carotid artery, the thyroid posterior capsule and trachea/esophagus, the thyroid and parathyroid, the thyroid posterior capsule and recurrent laryngeal nerves, and the metastatic lymph node and surrounding tissues (few adjustments can be made according to the specific position of the tumor) to form a liquid separation zone for the protection of the carotid artery, esophagus, parathyroid gland, recurrent laryngeal nerve, and other surrounding organs and tissues; (4) under the guidance of imaging techniques (ultrasound is recommended), a safe and close path (the needle should puncture through isthmus primarily, or the needle can also puncture through the lateral cervical region instead according to specific conditions) should be selected to keep away from important areas such as blood vessels, trachea, and nerves in the cervical region;, (5) the “mobile ablation technique” is recommended for ablation of benign mass lesions; the lesion can be divided into multiple units and then can undergo ablation one by one through movement of the heat source. It is necessary to ensure that the lesion has been completely ablated in three dimensions. For lesions with small volumes or malignant lesions, the “fixed ablation technique” can be used to fix the heat source in the lesion and continue ablation. Moreover, multitarget ablation should also be considered according to specific conditions. The ablation area for patients with malignant tumors should be extended to achieve local radical cure; (6) the output power of thermal ablation (RF, microwave, and laser) needs to be gradually adjusted from low to high, and the specific output power range and start–stop time must be controlled according to the thermal ablation options, lesion sizes, surrounding tissues, and values recommended by manufacturers;, (7) thermal ablation should be stopped if the real-time ultrasound shows that the lesion has been completely covered by the strong echo generated by thermal ablation. After ablation, enhanced imaging examination (contrast-enhanced ultrasound is recommended) should be performed to assess the effect of thermal ablation and ensure the safety of the operation; and (8) operators qualified for thermal ablation should refer to the Management Standards for Tumor Ablation Treating Techniques (2017 Edition).
| > Evaluations of Therapeutic Effects|| |
(1) Imaging examinations of lesions should be performed before, during, and after ablation. Ultrasound imaging examination is recommended (contrast-enhanced ultrasound is the best), and examination results should be regarded as the main evaluation indexes for therapeutic effects immediately after ablation and during the follow-up visit period; (2) during follow-up visits at 3, 6, and 12 months after thermal ablation, the imaging examination (ultrasound is recommended) should be applied to observe the necrotic condition of the lesion and lesion size, and then calculate the volume and reduction rate of the nodule. The reduction rate of ablated lesions: ([preoperative volume − volume during follow-up visits]/preoperative volume) × 100%; (3) related complications and their treatment and recovery conditions should be recorded. During follow-up visits, patients with thyroid tumors and cervical metastatic lymph nodes need checking of thyroid function indicators and corresponding tumor markers; and (4) qualified medical institutions can consider carrying out a biopsy and pathological examinations after operation (generally during the reexaminations at 1 and 3 months after operations) to determine the authenticity of therapeutic effects.
| > Notes for Attention|| |
(1) If patients feel pain or are uncomfortable during ablation, the output power for ablation should be decreased or suspended, the method of anesthesia can be changed, and fractional ablation may be applied if necessary;, (2) during the operation, vital signs (e.g., blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, and SpO2) should be monitored closely; (3) before the operation, patients and their families should be informed that the ablation may not be completed due to the large tumor size or other factors and thus the patient may require multiple or fractional ablations. Some patients may even need to undergo clinical surgeries. In addition, the tumor may recur or enlarge after ablation, so postoperative follow-up visits are required; and (4) before the operation, patients and their families or legal representatives should sign informed consents after being well informed.
| > Complications After Thermal Ablation and Treatment Methods|| |
Most of the ablations have a coagulation function, and so the incidence rate of postoperative hemorrhage is low. Hemorrhage occurs mostly on the surface of the gland, while a few can occur in the gland or in the sac. The damage of subcutaneous blood vessels in the puncturing process may cause skin ecchymosis in rare cases. Some hemorrhages can be stanched by thermal ablation. In cases of already-formed hematomas, dynamic observation via ultrasound can be performed, and the bleeding can be further controlled by local compression. After controlling the hemorrhage, compression bandage and an ice compress should be applied to prevent re-bleeding, after which the hematoma will be self-absorbed. However, in rare cases such as uncontrollable hemorrhage, timely surgical decompression should be carried out, especially when the patient is breathless.
A small number of patients will experience mild or radiation pain after surgery, which most patients can tolerate. Such pain will be gradually reduced over time. For a small number of patients with persistent pain, further investigation to reveal the causes is necessary and, if necessary, pain can be relieved through methods such as stopping ablation, additional anesthesia, and cervical plexus block.
Injury of recurrent laryngeal nerve and superior laryngeal nerve
Improper thermal ablation or tumor adhesion can damage the superior laryngeal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve. In some cases, during thermal ablation, heat is transmitted through the thyroid tumor and its surrounding tissues, causing injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and superior laryngeal nerve. Injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve often causes ipsilateral vocal cord paralysis or sometimes unilateral vocal cord paralysis without any symptoms. Most patients with unilateral vocal cord paralysis have symptoms such as voice fatigue and more serious hoarseness. Generally, these symptoms will gradually decrease over time, and most patients recover within 3–6 months. During this period, hormones and neurotrophic drugs can be given. Injury to the bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve and respiratory problems can lead to severe upper airway obstruction, often requiring emergency tracheotomy or tracheal intubation. Damage to the external laryngeal branch will mainly lead to paralysis of cricothyroid muscle and decreased vocal cord tension of the affected side. When speaking, symptoms such as low voice, weak voice, narrow voice range, shortened maximum vocalization time, and inability to speak loudly or shout may appear.
If thermal ablation fails due to the specificity of the tumor or if unpredictable conditions occur during surgery such as surgical complications, timely preparation for surgical treatment is required in some situations (under such conditions, in order to reduce local adhesions, it is recommended to consider surgical treatment at 3 months after ablation for elective surgeries that will not affect the survival and quality of life).
This taskforce wishes to thank Mr. Ming Gao, Mr. Gaojun Teng, and Ms. Ping Liang for their patient support and help. This guideline was not funded by any organizations and also received no support from any commercial sources. However, we would like to thank The Thyroid Tumor Ablation Experts Group of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, the Society of Thyroid Cancer of China Anti-Cancer Association, the Committee of Interventional Ultrasound for Chinese College of Interventionalists, the Committee of Tumor Ablation Therapy for Chinese College of Interventionalists, the Society of Interventional Therapy of China Anti-Cancer Association and the Society of Minimally Invasive Therapy on Cancer of China Anti-Cancer Association for their valuable suggestions and constant support. This guideline was supported by two funds of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81871370) and Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. LSD19H180001).
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| > References|| |
Haugen BR, Alexander EK, Bible KC, Doherty GM, Mandel SJ, Nikiforov YE, et a1
. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Thyroid 2016;26:1-133.
Tuttle RM, Haddad RI, Ball DW, Byrd D, Dickson P, Duh QY, et al
. Thyroid carcinoma, version 2.2014. J National Comprehensive Cancer Network 2014;12:1671.
The Society of Thyroid Cancer of China Anti-cancer Association. Chinese expert consensus on diagnosis and treatment for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (2016 edition). Chin J Clin Oncol 2016;43:526-6.
Kim JH, Baek JH, Lim HK, Ahn HS, Baek SM, Choi YJ, et al
. 2017 Thyroid radiofrequency ablation guideline: Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology. Korean J Radiol 2018;19:632-55.
Jung SL, Baek JH, Lee JH, Ahn HS, Baek SM, Choi YJ, et al
. Efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation for benign thyroid nodules: A prospective multicenter study. Korean J Radiol 2018;1:167-74.
Garberoglio R, Aliberti C, Appetecchia M, Attard M, Boccuzzi G, Boraso F, et al
. Radiofrequency ablation for thyroid nodules: Which indications? The first Italian opinion statement. J Ultrasound Med 2015;18:423-30.
Li J, Liu Y, Liu J, Qian L. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation versus surgery for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Int J Hyperthermia 2018;34:653-9.
Ge MH, Wang JF. Concerned about some controversial problems in surgery for thyroid diseases. Chin J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2013;48:705-7.
Zhang JQ. Application prospect of percutaneous thermal ablation in papillary thyroid carcinoma and its regional lymph node metastasis. Chin J Med Ultrasound 2014;11:1-4.
Ge MH, Xu D. Expert agreement on the treatment of benign thyroid nodules, microcarcinoma and metastatic lymph node metastasis in Zhejiang Province (2015 edition. Chin J General Surg 2016;25:944-6.
Tian HY, Xu D. Research progress in ultrasound-guided thermal ablation for thyroid nodules. J Chin Oncol 2016;22:6-11.
Xu D. Regulate the treatment of thyroid thermal ablation is imperative. Med Philosophy 2017;38:14-8.
Hao Sl, Ma JH, Jiang LX, Zheng HT. Progress of thermal ablation in minimally invasive treatment on thyroid nodules. Chin J General Surg 2016;10:77-80.
Dong WW, Zhang H, Zhang P, Shao L, Zhang T, Lv CZ, et al
. Re-operation for papillary thyroid carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation therapy: A clinical analysis of 5 cases. Chin J Pract Surg 2015;35:653-5.
Burch HB, Burman KD, Cooper DS, Hennessey JV, Vietor NO. A 2015 survey of clinical practice patterns in the management of thyroid nodules. J Clin Endocrinol Metabolism 2016;101:2853-62.
Tessler FN, Middleton WD, Grant EG. ACR thyroid imaging, reporting and data system (TI-RADS): White paper of the ACR TI-RADS committee. J Am Coll Radiol 2018;14:587.
Kihara M, Hirokawa M, Masuoka H, Yabuta T, Shindo H, Higashiyama T, et al
. Evaluation of cytologically benign solitary thyroid nodules by ultrasonography: A retrospective analysis of 1877 cases. Auris Nasus Larynx 2013;40:308-11.
Feng B, Liang P, Cheng Z, Yu X, Yu J, Han Z, et al
. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of benign thyroid nodules: Experimental and clinical studies. J Neuroendocrinol 2012;166:1031-7.
Adam MA, Thomas S, Hyslop T, Scheri RP, Roman SA, Sosa JA. et al
. Exploring the relationship between patient age and cancer-specific survival in papillary thyroid cancer: Rethinking current staging systems. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:4415-20.
Chianelli M, Bizzarri G, Todino V, Misischi I, Bianchini A, Graziano F, et al
. Laser ablation and 131iodine: A 24-month pilot study of combined treatment for large toxic nodular goiter. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014;99:1283-6.
Gao M. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Chin J Clin Oncol 2012;39:1249-72.
Mazurat A, Torroni A, Hendrickson-Rebizant J, Benning H, Nason RW, Pathak KA. et al
. The age factor in survival of a population cohort of well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Endoc Connect 2013;2:154-60.
Baek JH, Kim YS, Sung JY, Choi H, Lee JH. Locoregional control of metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancer by ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation. Am J Roentgenol 2011;197:331-6.
Shin JH, Ha TK, Park HK, Ahn MS, Kim KH, Bae KB, et al
. Implication of minimal extrathyroidal extension as a prognostic factor in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Int J Surg 2013;11:944-7.
de Biase D, Gandolfi G, Ragazzi M, Eszlinger M, Sancisi V, Gugnoni M, et al
. TERT promoter mutations in papillary thyroid microcarcinomas. Thyroid 2015;25:1013-9.
Mete O, Rotstein L, Asa SL. Controversies in thyroid pathology: Thyroid capsule invasion and extrathyroidal extension. Ann Surg Oncol 2010;17:386-91.
Youngwirth LM, Adam MA, Scheri RP, Roman SA, Sosa JA. Extrathyroidal extension is associated with compromised survival in patients with thyroid cancer. Thyroid 2017;27:626-31.
Radowsky JS, Howard RS, Burch HB, Stojadinovic A. Impact of degree of extrathyroidal extension of disease on papillary thyroid cancer outcome. Thyroid 2014;24:241-4.
Wang LY, Ghossein R, Palmer FL, Nixon IJ, Tuttle RM, Shaha AR, et al
. Microscopic positive margins in differentiated thyroid cancer is not an independent predictor of local failure. Thyroid 2015;25:993-8.
Castagna MG, Cantara S, Pacini F. Reappraisal of the indication for radioiodine thyroid ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer patients. J Endocrinol Investigat 2016;10:1087-94.
Ganly I, Nixon IJ, Wang LY, Palmer FL, Migliacci JC, Aniss A, et al
. Survival from differentiated thyroid cancer: What has age got to do with it?. Thyroid 2015;25:1106-14.
de Bernardi IC, Floridi C, Muollo A, Giacchero R, Dionigi GL, Reginelli A, et al
. Vascular and interventional radiology radiofrequency ablation of benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers: Literature review. Rradiol Med 2014;119:512-20.
Ito Y, Ichihara K, Masuoka H, Fukushima M, Inoue H, Kihara M, et al
. Establishment of an intraoperative staging system (iStage) by improving UICC TNM classification system for papillary thyroid carcinoma. World J Surg 2010;34:2570-80.
Ito Y, Fukushima M, Tomoda C, Inoue H, Kihara M, Higashiyama T, et al
. Prognosis of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma having clinically apparent metastasis to the lateral compartment. Endoc J 2009;56:759-66.
Nixon IJ, Wang LY, Migliacci JC, Eskander A, Campbell MJ, Aniss A, et al
. An international multi-institutional validation of age 55 years as a cutoff for risk stratification in the AJCC/UICC staging system for well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid Offic J Am Thyroid Assoc 2016;26:373-80.
Perrier ND, Brierley JD, Tuttle RM. Differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: Major changes in the American joint committee on cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018;68:55-63.
Nixon IJ, Ganly I, Patel S, Palmer FL, Whitcher MM, Tuttle RM, et al
. The impact of microscopic extrathyroid extension on outcome in patients with clinical T1 and T2 well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Surgery 2011;150:1242-9.
Kim SJ, Myong JP, Suh H, Lee KE, Youn YK. Optimal cutoff age for predicting mortality associated with differentiated thyroid cancer. PLoS One 2015;10:1-10.
Tuttle RM, Haugen B, Perrier ND. Updated American joint committee on cancer/tumor-node-metastasis staging system for differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancer (Eighth Edition): What changed and why? Thyroid Offic J Am Thyroid Assoc 2017;27:751-6.
Dupuy DE, Monchik JM, Decrea C, Pisharodi L. Radiofrequency ablation of regional recurrence from well-differentiated thyroid malignancy. Surgery 2001;130:971-7.
Jin YN, Wang YF, Xu D, Wang LP. Radio-frequency ablation for cervical metastasis lymph nodes. Chin J Ultrasound Med 2017;33:403-5.
Guang W, Luo YK, Zhang Y, Zhang MB, Li N, Zhang Y, et al.
Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation for cervical lymph nodes metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Chin Acad Med Sci 2018;40:67-71.
Park HS, Baek JH, Park AW, Chung SR, Choi YJ, Lee JH. Thyroid radiofrequency ablation: Updates on innovative devices and techniques. Korean J Radiol 2017;4:615-23.
Yue W, Wang S, Yu S, Wang B. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of solitary T1N0M0 papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: Initial experience. Int J Hyperthermia 2014;30:150-7.
Valcavi R, Riganti F, Bertani A, Formisano D, Pacella CM. Percutaneous laser ablation of cold benign thyroid nodules: A 3-year follow-up study in 122 patients. Thyroid 2010;20:1253-61.
Kong Y, Cheng ZG, Han ZY, Liu FY, Yu XL, Liang P, et al
. Application value of moving-shot technique in the treatment of microwave ablation for thyroid nodules. Acad J PLA Postgrad Med Sch 2014;35:660-2.
Liang P, Dong B, Yu X, Yang Y, Yu D, Su L, et al
. Prognostic factors for percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy of hepatic metastases. Am J Roentgenol 2003;181:1319-25.
Papini E, Guglielmi R, Gharib H, Misischi I, Graziano F, Chianelli M, et al
. Ultrasound-guided laser ablation of incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: A potential therapeutic approach in patients at surgical risk. Thyroid 2011;21:917-20.
Momesso DP, Tuttle RM. Update on differentiated thyroid cancer staging. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2014;43:401-21.
Lee CU, Kim SJ, Sung JY, Park SH, Chong S, Baek JH. Needle track tumor seeding after radiofrequency ablation of a thyroid tumor. Japan J Radiol 2014;32:661-3.
Liu Xl, Huang J, Sun DS, Wei W. Clinical experience of ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation for thyroid micropapillary carcinoma. Heilongjiang Med J 2015;39:69-70.
Wang SR, Zhang JQ, Xu QL, Yu SJ, Zhang YL, Wang XJ, et al
. Percutaneous thermal ablation for nodular thyroid diseases: An assessment of short-term effects. Acad J Second Military Med Univ 2011;32:1316-20.
Pathak KA, Mazurat A, Lambert P, Klonisch T, Nason RW. Prognostic nomograms to predict oncological outcome of thyroid cancers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013:4768-75.
Qian LX. Application of ultrasound-guided radiofrequency and microwave ablation in the treatment of thyroid nodules. Chin J Med Ultrasound (Electronic Edition) 2013;10: 870-3.
Feng B, Liang P. Status and progress of local ablation for thyroid nodules. Chin J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2011;46:695-7.
Yue W, Wang S, Wang B, Xu Q, Yu S, Yonglin Z, et al
. Ultrasound guided percutaneous microwave ablation of benign thyroid nodules: Safety and imaging follow-up in 222 patients. Europ J Radiol 2013;82:e11-6.