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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 718-725

An updated meta-analysis of the relationship between glutathione S-transferase T1 null/presence gene polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer


Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, China

Date of Submission11-May-2016
Date of Acceptance10-Jun-2016
Date of Web Publication25-Aug-2016

Correspondence Address:
Hua-Fu Zhou
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021
China
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-1482.189237

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 > Abstract 


Aim of Study: There were many reports published on the relationship between glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) null/presence gene polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer in these years. In previous, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between GSTT1 null/presence gene polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer. This study was conducted to update it.
Materials and Methods: The association studies were identified from PubMed and Cochrane Library on March 1, 2016.
Results: Sixty-three reports were recruited into this meta-analysis for the association of null genotype of GSTT1 with lung cancer susceptibility, consisting of 21,220 patients with lung cancer and 21,496 controls. There was a marked association between GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer risk in overall populations and in Asians (overall populations: Odds ratio [OR] = 1.17, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07–1.28, P = 0.006; Asians: OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.23–1.62, P < 0.00001). However, GSTT1 null genotype was not associated with the risk of lung cancer in Caucasians, Brazilian population, and Africans.
Conclusion: GSTT1 null genotype is associated with the lung cancer risk in overall populations and in Asians.

Keywords: Gene polymorphism, glutathione S-transferase T1, lung cancer, updated meta-analysis


How to cite this article:
Liu T, Liu WZ, Sun Y, Bi XH, Zhou HF. An updated meta-analysis of the relationship between glutathione S-transferase T1 null/presence gene polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer. J Can Res Ther 2020;16:718-25

How to cite this URL:
Liu T, Liu WZ, Sun Y, Bi XH, Zhou HF. An updated meta-analysis of the relationship between glutathione S-transferase T1 null/presence gene polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer. J Can Res Ther [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 5];16:718-25. Available from: https://www.cancerjournal.net/text.asp?2020/16/4/718/189237




 > Introduction Top


Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of a multigene family of isoenzymes that are important in the control of oxidative stress and in Phase II metabolism, and GSTT1 is one of the most important GST variants. There are many studies reporting that GSTT1 gene polymorphism (GSTT1 presence and GSTT1 null) is associated with the susceptibility of cancers.

Lung cancer is one of the most preventable causes of death globally both in developed and developing countries, with high disease-related morbidity and mortality.[1],[2] Unlike other major cancers, there has been little improvement in lung cancer outcomes over the past few decades, and survival remains disturbingly low. There lacks a well-documented diagnostic approach for the lung cancer risk, and the etiology of lung cancer is not clear.

In our previous meta-analysis, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between GSTT1 null/presence gene polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer.[3] There were many reports published on the relationship between GSTT1 null/presence gene polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer in these years.


 > Materials and Methods Top


Search strategy for the relationship between glutathione S-transferase T1 null/presence gene polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer

The relevant studies were searched from the electronic databases of PubMed and Cochrane Library on March 1, 2016. The retrieval strategy of “(glutathione S-transferase T1 OR GSTT1) and (lung cancer)” was entered into these databases. The additional reports were identified through references cited in recruited articles.

Inclusion criteria

(1) The outcome had to be lung cancer; (2) there had to be at least two comparison groups (case group vs. control group); (3) investigation should provide the data of GSTT1 genotype distribution.

Exclusion criteria

(1) Review articles and editorials; (2) case reports; (3) preliminary result not on GSTT1 gene polymorphism or outcome; (4) investigating the role GSTT1 gene expression to disease; (5) if multiple publications for the same data from the same study group occurred, we only recruited the later paper into our final analysis.

Data extraction and synthesis

The following information from each eligible study was extracted independently by two investigators: First author's surname, year of publication, location of the study performed, control source of the control group, and the number of cases and controls for GSTT1 genotypes. The results were compared, and disagreement was resolved by discussion.

Statistical analysis

Cochrane Review Manager version 5 (Cochrane Library, UK) was used to calculate the available data from each study. The pooled statistic was counted using the fixed effects model, but a random effects model was conducted when the P value of heterogeneity test was <0.1. Results were expressed with odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data, and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were also calculated. P < 0.05 was required for the pooled OR to be statistically significant. I2 was used to test the heterogeneity among the included studies. Sensitivity analysis was also performed according to the source of the controls (healthy vs. hospital) and sample size of case (<100 vs. ≥100). Stata 11.0 (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, U.S.A.) was used to test the publication bias. The Begg adjusted rank correlation test[4] and the Egger regression asymmetry test[5] were used to evaluate the publication bias (P < 0.1 was considered significant) when the number of the included studies was more than ten.


 > Results Top


Study characteristics

Sixty-three studies[2],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32],[33],[34],[35],[36],[37],[38],[39],[40],[41],[42],[43],[44],[45],[46],[47],[48],[49],[50],[51],[52],[53],[54],[55],[56],[57],[58],[59],[60],[61],[62],[63],[64],[65],[66],[67] reporting the relationship between GSTT1 gene polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility were recruited into this meta-analysis [Table 1]. The data of our interest were extracted [Table 1]. Those 63 investigations contained 21,220 patients with lung cancer and 21,496 controls.
Table 1: Characteristics of the studies evaluating the effects of GSTT1 gene polymorphism on lung cancer risk

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Association of glutathione S-transferase T1 null genotype with lung cancer susceptibility in overall populations

In this meta-analysis, we found that GSTT1 null genotype was associated with lung cancer risk in overall populations (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07–1.28, P = 0.006) [Figure 1] and [Table 2].
Figure 1: Association between GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer risk in overall populations

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Table 2: Meta analysis of the association of GSTT1 gene polymorphism with lung cancer risk

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Association of glutathione S-transferase T1 null genotype with lung cancer susceptibility in Caucasians

In this meta-analysis, GSTT1 null genotype was not associated with lung cancer risk in Caucasians (OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.90–1.11, P = 0.99) [Figure 2] and [Table 2].
Figure 2: Association between GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer risk in Caucasian population

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Association of glutathione S-transferase T1 null genotype with lung cancer susceptibility in Asians

In this meta-analysis, GSTT1 null genotype was associated with lung cancer risk in Asians (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.23–1.62, P < 0.00001) [Figure 3] and [Table 2].
Figure 3: Association between GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer susceptibility in Asians

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Association of glutathione S-transferase T1 null genotype with lung cancer susceptibility in Brazilian population

In this meta-analysis, GSTT1 null genotype was not associated with lung cancer risk in Brazilian population (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.61–1.41, P = 0.72) [Table 2].

Association of glutathione S-transferase T1 null genotype with lung cancer susceptibility in Africans

In this meta-analysis, GSTT1 null genotype was not associated with lung cancer risk in African population (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.42–1.41, P = 0.39) [Table 2].

Sensitivity analysis

Sensitivity analysis for the relationship between GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer risk was also performed according to the source of the controls (healthy vs. hospital), and sensitivity analysis for the relationship between GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer risk was also performed according to sample size of the case (<100 vs. ≥100). We found that the results were similar with those from nonsensitivity analysis (data not shown).

Evaluation of publication bias

Publication bias was showed for the overall populations (Begg P = 0.046, funnel plot was presented in [Figure 4]; Egger P = 0.033), Caucasians (Begg P = 0.441, Egger P = 0.440), and Asians (Begg P = 0.023, Egger P = 0.021).
Figure 4: Funnel plot to assess publication bias for the association of GSTT1 null genotype with lung cancer risk in overall populations

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 > Discussion Top


GSTT1 takes part in the inactivation of procarcinogens which contribute to cancer. In this study, we included 63 studies for our meta-analysis. We investigated whether the GSTT1 null genotype could become a valuable indicator to predict the risk of lung cancer and tried to draw a more robust conclusion. In our meta-analysis, we found that there was a marked association between GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer risk in overall populations and in Asians. However, GSTT1 null genotype was not associated with the risk of lung cancer in Caucasians, Brazilian population, and Africans. The sample size of the included studies number was larger than the previous one (3), and the results on the association between GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer risk were similar to those in our previous meta-analysis.[3]

In the sensitivity analysis according to the source of the controls and the sample size of the case, we found that the results were similar with those of nonsensitivity analysis, and the results were similar to those in our previous meta-analysis.[3]

Publication bias was also tested, and we found that there was publication bias among Asian studies. More well-designed studies should be performed in the Asian population, and the conclusion for Asians should be confirmed in the future.

Our updated meta-analysis indicated that there was an association between null genotypes of GSTT1 and lung cancer risk in overall populations and in Asians. The outcome might be robust to some extent. However, those findings should be regarded cautiously because many other ingredients, such as small sample size of the included report, limited statistical power, heterogeneity of enrolled cases, variable study designs, and different interventions, were closely related to affect the results.


 > Conclusion Top


The results of our study support that null genotype of GSTT1 is associated with the risk of lung cancer in the Asian population. However, more well-designed association investigations are required to further clarify the role of the GSTT1 gene polymorphism in predicting the risk of lung cancer in the Asian population.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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