Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 21-26

Clinical studies for improving radiotherapy with 2-deoxy-D-glucose: Present status and future prospects

1 Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi, India
2 Dharmshila Cancer Hospital, New Delhi, India
3 Vidyasagar Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, New Delhi, India
4 Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India
5 NS Global, Bangalore, India
6 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
7 National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, New Delhi, India
8 Eco-Development Foundation, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication21-Aug-2009

Correspondence Address:
B S Dwarakanath
Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, New Delhi - 110 054
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0973-1482.55136

Rights and Permissions
 > Abstract 

Higher rates of glucose usage generally correlate with poor prognosis in several types of malignant tumours. Experimental studies (both in vitro and in vivo) have shown that 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a glucose analog and glycolytic inhibitor, enhances radiation-induced damage selectively in tumor cells while protecting normal cells, thereby suggesting that 2-DG can be used as a differential radiomodifier to improve the efficacy of radiotherapy. Clinical trials undertaken to study the feasibility, safety, and validity of this suggested approach will be described. Based on 2-DG-induced radiosensitization observed in primary organ cultures of cerebral glioma tissues, clinical trials were designed taking into consideration the radiobiology of gliomas and pharmacokinetics of 2-DG. Phase I/II clinical trials have unequivocally demonstrated that a combination of 2-DG (200-300 mg 2-DG per kg body weight orally administered after overnight fasting, 20min before irradiation) with large weekly fractions (5 Gy/fraction) of low-LET radiotherapy is well tolerated without any acute toxicity or late radiation damage to the normal brain tissue. Nonserious transient side effects similar to hypoglycemia induced disturbances like restlessness, nausea, and vomiting were observed at the 2-DG doses used. Data from these trials involving more than 100 patients have clearly indicated a moderate increase in the survival, with a significant improvement in the quality of life with clinicopathological evidence of protection of normal brain tissue. A phase III multicentric trial to evaluate the efficacy of the combined treatment is in progress. Directions for future studies are discussed.

Keywords: Glioblastoma multiforme, hypofractionated radiotherapy, radiosensitization, safety and tolerance, quality of life, 2-deoxy-D-glucose

How to cite this article:
Dwarakanath B S, Singh D, Banerji AK, Sarin R, Venkataramana N K, Jalali R, Vishwanath P N, Mohanti B K, Tripathi R P, Kalia V K, Jain V. Clinical studies for improving radiotherapy with 2-deoxy-D-glucose: Present status and future prospects. J Can Res Ther 2009;5, Suppl S1:21-6

How to cite this URL:
Dwarakanath B S, Singh D, Banerji AK, Sarin R, Venkataramana N K, Jalali R, Vishwanath P N, Mohanti B K, Tripathi R P, Kalia V K, Jain V. Clinical studies for improving radiotherapy with 2-deoxy-D-glucose: Present status and future prospects. J Can Res Ther [serial online] 2009 [cited 2022 Jul 1];5, Suppl S1:21-6. Available from: https://www.cancerjournal.net/text.asp?2009/5/9/21/55136

 > Introduction Top

Tumors utilize glucose at high rates to generate metabolic energy (ATP) and building blocks for macromolecular synthesis to sustain rapid cell proliferation. This manifests in an increased dependence on the glycolytic pathway (even in the presence of oxygen) for energy (ATP) supply as compared to surrounding normal tissues, a phenomenon first described almost 80 years ago by Warburg. [1] The glucose usage and aerobic glycolysis increase further during the tumor growth and advancement of malignancy due to the development of microregional hypoxia in most types of human tumors. While the enhanced glucose uptake is being increasingly exploited for the noninvasive detection and grading of tumors by positron emission tomography using the F-18-labeled glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) (FDG-PET), [2] the development of therapeutic strategies based on this metabolic shift remains still a challenge.

The glucose analog 2-DG is the most widely investigated pharmacological agent in experimental and clinical oncology for targeting glucose metabolism. We describe briefly its scientific rationale, pharmacology, toxicity, and clinical studies, and future prospects of its use in cancer therapeutics.

 > Prominent Effects of 2-DG at the Molecular and Cellular Levels Top

2-DG competitively inhibits glucose transport (by sharing the same glucose transporters) and is phosphorylated by hexokinase (HK) to form 2-DG-6-phosphate, which is not metabolized further to any significant extent, and inhibits phosphohexoisomerase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase thereby reducing the output from glycolysis (ATP) and the pentose phosphate pathway (NAPDH). [3],[4],[5],[6],[7] 2-DG has also been found to alter N-linked glycosylation leading to unfolded protein responses and induce changes in gene expression and phosphorylation status of proteins involved in signaling, cell cycle control, DNA repair, calcium influx, and cell death via apoptosis.[8],[9],[10] The inhibition of proliferation has been reported in many tumor cell lines, while studies on tumor-bearing animals have revealed a great deal of heterogeneity in growth inhibition. [11],[12],[13],[14]

 > Pharmacology and Toxicity of 2-DG in Human Subjects Top

Metabolic and clinical side effects induced by 2-DG have been investigated after intravenous, intra-arterial, and oral administration in normal human volunteers and in patients.

2-DG produces intracellular glucopenia since it competitively inhibits intracellular glucose utilization by inhibiting glucose transport, glycolysis, and pentose phosphate pathway. Most physiological effects induced by 2-DG result from decreases in the utilization of glucose by the central nervous system, some areas in the brain, particularly in the hypothalamus, being especially sensitive to intracellular glucopenia. To compensate for the intracellular glucopenia, a number of neurotransmitter systems are activated and several hormonal, metabolic, and behavioral responses are brought into play by the intact organism. Posterior and anterior pituitary hormone release, catecholamine-mediated glucocounter regulatory mechanisms, hunger and thirst are stimulated. [15] The stimulation of glucoreceptors in the hypothalamus leads to the activation of sympathetic neural pathways inducing increases in the secretions of epinephrine, growth hormone, and glucagon. Endogenous glucose is released from glycogen stores through catecholamine-mediated glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and lipolysis are stimulated by growth hormone leading to elevations of blood glucose, free fatty acids, lactate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate. [16],[17],[18]

Clinically, side effects similar to those of hypoglycemia, despite hyperglycemia in the blood, have been reported. The symptoms are transient lasting only for a couple of hours and can be reversed by the administration of glucose. No serious changes in vital parameters have been reported. The pulse rate may increase by about 15-20 beats per second up to 4h after 2-DG infusion, and then gradually comes to normal values. [15],[19] No significant change in systolic blood pressure is observed; diastolic blood pressure has been reported to reduce by 10-30mmHg for about 90min in some studies. [19] Body temperature may fall initially (~1°C). Associated with the fall in the body temperature there is a feeling of warmth and sweating. The heat production increases gradually 2-3h after 2-DG administration. 2-DG has been shown to stimulate the gastric secretory vagus nerves and increase gastric secretion volume as well as pepsin output. [15],[20]

 > Treatment of Cancer Patients with 2-DG Top

In initial exploratory studies at the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, USA, cancer patients (1 islet-cell carcinoma, 1 broncogenic carcinoma, 1 renal cell carcinoma, and 5 patients with leukemia) were given 2-DG intravenously during a 25-to 60-min period at doses ranging from 50 to 200 mg/kg body weight. [21] Blood glucose levels were observed to increase after 2-DG administration. Diaphoresis, generalized warmth, flushing, drowsiness, and hypothermia were noted. These side effects, similar to those of hypoglycemia, were not severe and most of them disappeared after about 90min of 2-DG infusion. An oral administration of 2-DG caused less side effects (equivalent to somewhat lower doses given intravenously). In some patients with leukemia, reduction in glycolysis and WBC counts was noted; however, there was no change in the course of the disease after a single infusion of 2-DG. It was realized that to achieve therapeutic effects, high doses of 2-DG would be required to be administered continuously for a long period of time. In view of the risk of toxicity of such a regimen, further trials to treat cancer with 2-DG were discontinued.

 > 2-DG as a Differential Modifier of Repair Pathways to Optimize Tumor Radiotherapy Top

A more promising and feasible approach in cancer treatment was suggested by Jain and colleagues, based on their studies on the energy dependence of repair of radiation damage in wild-type and respiratory-deficient mutants of yeast cells. [22],[23],[24],[25] Since the cellular responses to radiation/chemical injury are known to be profoundly influenced by competitions between the processes of error-free repair, misrepair, and the fixation of potentially lethal damage, an appropriate modulation of the rates of these processes should provide an opportunity to optimize selective elimination of unwanted cells from the system. The error-free repair preferably occurs in resting cells while misrepair and fixation of lesions are facilitated by cell proliferation. Modulation in the rates of these processes can be achieved by altering the supply of metabolic energy. [22] Exploiting the facts that tumor cells show enhanced glucose utilization and derive a significant part of the metabolic energy through the glycolytic pathway, it was suggested that 2-DG could be used as a differential modifier of repair processes to reduce the repair of potentially lethal lesions in tumor cells while enhancing the same in normal tissues. [23],[26] Such an application of 2-DG as an adjunct to enhance the efficacies of currently popular therapeutic agents such as radiation and/or cytotoxic drugs would not require continued presence of 2-DG for a long time. Subsequent in vitro and in vivo studies on various model systems have indeed shown selective enhancement of radiation-induced killing of malignant cells (sensitization) and a reduction in damage in normal cells (protection) by the presence of 2-DG for a short duration (couple of hours) after treatment with the therapeutic agents. [27]

While the exact molecular mechanisms underlying the 2-DG-induced differential modifications of damage responses are complex and remain yet to be elucidated in detail, appropriate combinations of tumoricidal agents such as ionizing radiations and chemotherapeutic drugs with 2-DG could provide unique opportunities to selectively destroy tumors, reduce toxicity to normal tissues, and significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility, safety, and therapeutic efficacy of 2-DG in combination with ionizing radiations in animal models and human cancer patients. The animal studies have been reviewed in an accompanying paper (Dwarakanath et al. in this issue); the studies with human cancer patients are reviewed in this paper.

 > 131-I and 2-DG in Thyroid Carcinoma with Brain Metastasis : A Case Report Top

Thyroid cancer treatment with radioactive iodine provided a convenient first model to test the feasibility of the present approach, since functioning metastasis of thyroid cancer accumulates radioactive iodine and the response to therapy can be easily evaluated by gamma-ray scintillation scanning.

A preliminary study was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, on a patient (A.M., male, 54 years, 50 kg) suffering from follicular thyroid carcinoma with extensive metastasis in the neck, liver, and brain. Total thyroidectomy had been performed 3 years ago and three previous attempts of treatment with 131-I within a span of 2 years did not bring any significant benefit.

The patient was given 131-I (200mCi) on March 28, 1974, and two doses of 2-DG (10 g each in 150ml water, orally) after 16h and 65h of radioactive iodine administration. Glucose and 2-DG concentrations in the peripheral blood were measured at different intervals of time. In the peripheral blood of this patient, glucose levels started increasing after 1h, reaching peak values at 5h and returning to the base level by 24h after 2-DG administration; 2-DG/G molar concentration ratio around 1 or higher was achieved in the first 2 h. The patient showed typical symptoms of hypoglycemia 30min after 2-DG administration, which disappeared completely within 4h.

Gamma-ray scintigraphy on April 15, 1974, showed a marked reduction in the size of the primary and metastatic tumors.[28] The patient was still alive in 1985 (14 years after initial diagnosis) with a remarkably improved quality of life. A whole-body scan revealed same number of metastatic lesions suggesting that the progress of disease could be arrested and the treatment of cancer with a combination of 2-DG with radiation might be feasible and safe warranting systematically planned clinical trials.

 > Systematic Phase I/II Clinical Trials on Malignant Cerebral Gliomas Top

Malignant gliomas are among the tumors most resistant to treatment; satisfactory therapy of malignant gliomas is not available at present and these tumors remain virtually incurable. The average survival time of patients with high-grade astrocytomas is less than 1 year with most patients dying within 3 years postdiagnosis. The human glioblastomas are known to regrow after postoperative radiotherapy and this local regrowth within the cranial cavity is largely responsible for killing the host. Therefore, an efficient reduction in the localized tumor mass and the inhibition of regrowth in this region may provide an effective cure. Gliomas are diffuse and heterogeneous tumors containing multiple regions of hypoxic and nonproliferating as well as euoxic and proliferating cell subpopulations. Hypoxic cells are known to be treatment resistant; however, glioblastoma cells, even under euoxic conditions, are intrinsically radio resistant due to efficient repair systems present in these cells. Therefore, based on 2-DG-induced radiosensitization observed in primary organ cultures of cerebral glioma tissues [29] and the clinical, metabolic, and radiobiologic aspects of this neoplasm, malignant gliomas were considered to be the most appropriate tumors for initial clinical studies to test the radiosensitization induced by 2-DG. Clinical trial protocols were designed taking into consideration the radiobiology of malignant cerebral gliomas, the pharmacology, and toxicity of 2-DG in humans and the timing of 2-DG administration with reference to tumor irradiation.

[Table 1] shows the phase I/II clinical trials completed so far. The protocol in phase I/II clinical trials consisted of four weekly fractions of 5 Gy per fraction administered 2-3 weeks postsurgery to the whole brain; 2-DG was given orally (200 mg/kg body weight) after overnight fasting and 20-30min before irradiation at 200 mg/kg body weight. Subsequently, a small field local radiation was delivered to the residual tumor plus a 3cm margin at a dose of 14Gy in seven equal fractions at five fractions/week. Results of these trials clearly established the safety and patient compliance to the combined treatment with a high radiation dose (5Gy) per fraction and 2-DG. The results indicated lack of any acute toxicity or late radiation damage [30] with a moderate increase in survival. Most importantly, the trial showed that the combination significantly enhances the quality of life.

Preclinical studies with human tumor cell lines and tumor-bearing animals have shown an increase in radiosensitization with increasing 2-DG doses. The normal tissue toxicity mainly in the form of CNS disturbances and cardiac toxicity could be limiting factors in using higher 2-DG doses, particularly in combination with a high radiation dose. Therefore, dose optimization studies were undertaken to examine the tolerance and safety of the escalating 2-DG dose during the combined treatment (2-DG + RT) in glioblastoma multiforme patients. The protocol in these trials was slightly modified from the previous phase I trial. Seven weekly fractions of the combined treatment 2-DG + radiation (5 Gy/fraction) were delivered to the postsurgery residual tumor plus 3cm margin as against four fractions to the whole brain [Table 1]. Results of this trial have shown excellent patient compliance and tolerance to the combined treatment up to a 2-DG dose of 250 mg/kg b.wt., without any acute or late toxicity. At a higher dose (300 mg/kg b.wt.), two out of six patients could not complete treatment due to restlessness in the first few (two to three) fractions, although the vital parameters were not altered [31] [Table 1]. Enhanced survival seen at 2-DG doses of 250-300 mg/kg b.wt. suggested that patients who can tolerate higher doses would in fact benefit the most from the combined treatment.

Based on the patient compliance observed during dose escalation studies, a single-arm multicentric phase II clinical trial has been carried out using a 2-DG dose of 250 mg/kg b.wt. with the same protocol that was employed in dose escalation studies. Results from more than 60 patients have clearly indicated an increase in the survival as compared to the conventional protocol [Table 1]. Interestingly, the enhancement in survival of patients with higher RPA scores (suggestive of poor prognosis) was significantly higher as compared to the values reported for treatment using temozolamide. [32] Again the quality of life of all patients during treatment and at extended follow-up times in surviving patients observed in this trial has reiterated the observations made in the earlier trials, suggesting that the combined protocol with hypofractionation and 2-DG does not result in late damage to the normal brain tissue. Indeed this trial also provided unequivocal clinicopathological evidences (in a few cases where re-exploration of the tumor was performed due to clinical conditions) of normal tissue protection concomitant with the destruction of the tumor. Well-preserved choroid plexus (normal brain tissue) adjoining extensive tumor necrosis was found in these patients (see the accompanying article in this issue by Venkataramana et al. ). Reasons for this well-preserved normal tissue could be related to the radiation fractionation regimen as well as biological factors. A total physical dose of 35 Gy used (7 ´ 5Gy/fraction) here is biologically equivalent (BED = 62Gy) to that given in the conventional treatment (60-65Gy) generally employed. [31] A reduction in the manifestations of radiation-induced damage and metabolic oxidative stress (leading to apoptosis and necrosis) and the restoration of normal cytokine profiles could be some of the biologic factors. Recent in vitro studies have indeed shown enhanced apoptosis in glioblastoma cells, but not in normal astrocytes, that could be linked to the maintenance of ATP levels and redox status in astrocytes.[33] 2-DG-induced changes in the expression of certain genes related to apoptosis and alterations in the immune status including cytokine secretion in tumor-bearing mice have also been reported. [10],[34] Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms underlying mechanisms of normal tissue protection, as it would allow the use of higher radiation doses for achieving better therapeutic efficacy.

A significant enhancement observed in the survival of two patients (out of three) who received the combined treatment at 300 mg/kg b.wt. of 2-DG (as compared to lower doses) and patient compliance without any life-threatening changes in vital parameters at this dose suggest that patients who can tolerate higher 2-DG doses may show greater benefit from the combined treatment. A pilot study was therefore initiated to evaluate the feasibility of administering the combined treatment at 5.5 Gy per fraction plus a 2-DG dose of 275 mg/kg b.wt. Preliminary observations in BMG patients treated with seven fractions of this combination have been quite encouraging with good patient compliance and lack of acute or late systemic or hematologic toxicity (Singh et al., to be published). It is pertinent to note that treatment protocols using hypofractionation with large radiation doses per fraction requires administration of 2-DG only once in a week, which is well tolerated and convenient for the patient. It is also cost effective and permits treatment of a larger number of patients per machine.

In line with the large radiation dose per fraction used in clinical trials with malignant brain tumors, [30],[31] a clinical protocol for the treatment of glioblastoma with high-dose stereotactic radiosurgery was designed at the Kettering Medical Center, Kettering, Ohio, and approved by FDA, USA. Another clinical trial using similar protocol to treat intracranial metastatic lesions has been undertaken at the Iowa State University, USA. Results of this trial should provide a basis for the treatment of other inoperable neoplasms with radiosurgery and 2-DG.

 > Conclusions and Future Directions Top

The clinical trials on glioblastoma patients conducted so far suggest that the combination of hypofractionated radiotherapy with oral administration of 2-DG in doses between 250 and 300 mg/kg body weight is feasible and safe. Though the number of patients studied is small, clinical observations indicate improvements in the quality of life and a reduction in the late radiation damage to the normal brain tissue. The treatment protocol requires administration of 2-DG only once a week, is convenient for the patient, cost effective, and permits treatment of a larger number of patients per machine. Therefore, while dose escalation and phase III clinical trials on glioblastoma should be continued, studies incorporating treatment-resistant tumors at various other more common locations (lung, breast, and liver, for example) with similar protocols need to be undertaken.

Therapeutic nuclear medicine techniques using tumor-localizing radiopharmaceuticals offer attractive possibilities to treat metastatic disease; however, such applications have been limited so far because of the radiation-induced damage to bone-marrow cells resulting in hematological toxicities. The differential radioprotection induced by 2-DG in normal cells, particularly in the bone marrow and proliferating lymohocytes [26],[35],[36] is expected to reduce such toxicities. At the same time, sensitization of tumor cells to radionuclide-induced damage by 2-DG as reported in model systems [37],[38] would enhance the therapeutic efficacy; the feasibility of using 2-DG in combination with radionuclide therapy has already been demonstrated in human patients of thyroid carcinoma. However, noteworthy in this context, is a preclinical study reporting reduction in the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) by 2-DG, [39] which could be due to the limitations in designing an optimal treatment regimen with 2-DG and radionuclides.

The design of treatment regimens based on the knowledge of time-dependent changes in the metabolic and cell-signaling modifications caused by 2-DG vis-à-vis the time course of prosurvival and prodeath pathways is crucial for deriving optimal benefit from the combination. Since molecular and cellular processes related to survival and death of cells are initiated soon after irradiation and last for several minutes to few hours (and few days in the case of delayed metabolic oxidative stress), the design of protocols using 2-DG with internally administered radiopharmaceuticals is relatively more complex as compared to external beam radiotherapy. In the case of external beam RT, the temporal sequences of responses to 2-DG and radiation given at high dose rates can be better estimated, whereas in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures, the induction of lesions is spread over a long time interval (depending on the half-life of radionuclides) overlapping the damage response events. Therefore, further systematic research work should be undertaken to optimize such regimens and to investigate the effects of combining 2-DG with radionuclide irradiation at continuously diminishing dose rates.

In view of the intertumor variability of therapeutic responses, future clinical studies should attempt to identify and select those patients most likely to benefit from the combined treatment of 2-DG plus radiation. Studies on monolayer cell cultures and spheroids (which mimic the microenvironment and variable physiology of tumors) of human tumor cell lines have suggested that the degree of radio- and chemosensitization induced by 2-DG correlates well with the endogenous glucose usage among other parameters of energy metabolism. [40] Recent data on animal tumors in vivo support this proposition. [41] Noninvasive and quantitative estimates of the glucose usage by FDG-PET, for example, could facilitate the individualization of the therapies using 2-DG as an adjuvant in the radio- and chemotherapy of tumors.

In future studies, attempts should be made to improve tolerance to higher doses of 2-DG, reduce induced toxicity, and further enhance the degree of tumor radiosensitization. A number of approaches are being investigated at the preclinical level. One such approach using a combination of 2-DG with 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN), an inhibitor of the pentose phosphate pathway, has demonstrated that the combination significantly enhances the degree of sensitization even at lower doses of the inhibitors; [42],[43] this appears promising and warrants clinical evaluation.

 > Acknowledgements Top

Clinical studies on cerebral gliomas were supported by DRDO, Government of India.

 > References Top

1.Warburg O. The metabolism of tumors. Constable and Co., London (1930) Alexander E. 3 rd . Glioblastoma revisited: Do clinical observations match basic science theory? Radiosurgery: Clinical observations. J Neurooncol 1993;15:169-173.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Gambhir SS. Molecular imaging of cancer with positron emission tomography. Nat Rev Cancer 2002;2:683-93.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Woodward GE, Cramer FB. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose as an inhibitor of anaerobic glycolysis in tumor tissues. J Franklin Inst 1952;254:259-60.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Brown J. Effects of 2-deoxyglucose on carbohydrate metabolism: Review of the literature and studies in the rat. Metabolism 1962;11:1098-112.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Woodward GE, Hudson MT. The effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on glycolysis and respiration of tumour and normal tissues. Cancer Res 1954;14:599-605.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Nirenberg MW, Hogg JF. Inhibition of anaerobic glycolysis in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells by 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Cancer Res 1958;18:518-21.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Tower DB. The effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on metabolism of slices of cerebral cortex incubated in vitro . J Neurochem 1958;3:185-205.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Lin X, Zhang F, Bradbury CM, Kaushal A, Li L, Spitz DR, Aft RL, et al. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose-induced cytotoxicity and radiosensitization in tumor cells is mediated via disruptions in thiol metabolism. Cancer Res 2003;63:3413-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Kurtoglu M, Gao N, Shang J, Maher JC, Lehrman MA, Wangpaichitr M, et al. Under normoxia, 2-deoxy-D-glucose elicits cell death in select tumor types not by inhibition of glycolysis but by interfering with N-linked glycosylation. Mol Cancer Ther 2007;6:3049-58.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Heminger K, Jain V, Kadakia M, Dwarakanath B, Berberich SJ. Altered gene expression induced by ionizing radiation and glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-glucose in a human glioma cell line: Implications for radiosensitization. Cancer Biol Ther 2006;5:815-23.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Dwarakanath BS, Adhikari JS, Khaitan D, Chandna S, Mathur R, Ravindranath T. Growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis by 2-deoxy-D-glucose in human squamous carcinoma cell lines. Biomedicine 2005;24:36-47.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Bell SE, Quinn DM, Kellett GL, Warr JR. 2-deoxy-D-glucose preferentially kills multidrug-resistant human KB carcinoma cell lines by apoptosis. Br J Cancer 1998;78:1464-70.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.Laszlo J, Humphrey SR, Glodin A. Effects of glucose analogues (2-deoxy-D-glucose, 2-deoxy-D-galactose) on experimental tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst 1960;24:267-71.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Kern KA, Norton JA. Inhibition of established rat fibrosarcoma growth by the glucose antagonist 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Surgery 1987;102:380-5.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Thompson DA, Lilavivathana U, Campbell RG, Welle SL, Craig AB. Thermoregulatory and related responses to 2-deoxy-D-glucose administration in humans. Am J Physiol 1980;239:R291-5.   Back to cited text no. 15
16.Laszalo J, Harlan WR, Klein RF, et al. The effect of 2-DG infusions on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in man. J Clin Invest 1960;40:171-6.  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Brodows RG, Pi- Sunyer XF, Campbell RG. Sympathetic control of hepatic glycogenolysis during glycopenia in man. Metab 1975;24:617-24.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Elman I, Rott D, Green AI, Langleben DD, Lukas SE, Goldstein DS, Breier A. Effects of pharmacological doses of 2-deoxyglucose on plasma catecholamines and glucose levels in patients with schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology 2004;176:369-75.  Back to cited text no. 18
19.Fagius J, Berne C. Changes of sympathetic nerve activity induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose infusions in humans. Am J Physiol 1989;E714-20.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.Duke WW, Hirschowitz BI, Sachs G. Vagal stimulation of gastric secretion in man by 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Lancet 1965;2:871-6.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Landau BR, Laszlo J, Stengle J, Burk D. Certain metabolic and pharmacologic effects in cancer patients given infusions of 2-deoxy-D-glucose. J Nat Cancer Inst 1958;21:485-94.  Back to cited text no. 21
22.Jain V, Pohlit W, Purohit SC. Influence of energy metabolism on the repair of X-ray damage in living cells. III. Effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on liquid holding reactivation in yeast. Biophysik 1973;10:137-42.  Back to cited text no. 22
23.Jain V, Pohlit W, Purohit SC. Influence of energy metabolism on the repair of X-ray damage in living cells. IV. Effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on the repair phenomena during fractionated irradiation of yeast. Radiat Environ Biophys 1975;12:315-20.  Back to cited text no. 23
24.Frankenberg-Schwager, Harbich R, Frankenberg D, Jain V. 2-deoxy-D-glucose inhibits rejoining of radiation induced DNA double strand breaks in yeast. Int J Radiat Biol 1992;61:185-90.  Back to cited text no. 24
25.Jain VK, Gupta I, Lata K. Energetics of cellular repair processes in a respiratory-deficient mutant of yeast. Radiat Res 1982;92:463-73.  Back to cited text no. 25
26.Jain VK, Kalia VK, Sharma R, Maharajan V, Menon M. Effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on glycolysis, proliferation kinetics and radiation response of human cancer cells. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1985;11:943-50.  Back to cited text no. 26
27.Jain V. Modifications of radiation responses by 2-deoxy-D-glucose in normal and cancer cells. Ind J Nucl Med 1996;11:8-17.  Back to cited text no. 27
28.Naqvi S, Joshi, KN, Basu AK, Jain VK. Optimizing cancer therapy. Studies on the combination of 131-I with 2-deoxy-D-glucose in the treatment of thyroid cancer. Abst.VI Ann Conf Soc Nucl Med India 1974. p. 3.  Back to cited text no. 28
29.Dwarakanath BS, Jain VK. Modification of the radiation induced damage by 2-deoxy-D-glucose in organ cultures of human cerebral gliomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1987;13:741-6.  Back to cited text no. 29
30.Mohanti BK, Rath GK, Anantha N, Kannan V, Das BS, Chandramouli BA, et al. Improving cancer radiotherapy with 2-deoxy-D-glucose: Phase I/II clinical trial on human cerebral glioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996;35:103-11.  Back to cited text no. 30
31.Singh D, Banerji AK, Dwarakanath BS, Tripathi RP, Gupta JP, Mathew TL, et al. Optimizing cancer radiotherapy with 2-deosxy-D-glucose: Dose escalation studies in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. Strahlenther Onkol 2005;181:507-14.  Back to cited text no. 31
32.Sarin R, Singh D, Venkataramana NK, Jalali R, Dwarakanath BS. Phase II multicentric study with 2-DG and hypofractionated radiotherapy in glioblastoma multiforme. Int Symp on Application of 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose in the Management of Cancer 2006. p. 36.  Back to cited text no. 32
33.Jelluma N, Yang N, Stokoe D, Evan GI, Dansen TB, Haas-Kogan DA. Glucose Withdrawal Induces Oxidative Stress followed by Apoptosis in Glioblastoma Cells but not in Normal Human Astrocytes. Mol Cancer Res 2006;4:319-30.  Back to cited text no. 33
34.Farooque A, Singh S, Adhikari JS, Dwarakanath BS. Role of T-regulatory cells (CD4 + CD25 high FoxP3 + ), Th1, Th2 and Th3 cytokines in the radiosensization of Ehrlich ascites tumor by the glycolytic inhibitor 2deoxy-D- glucose (2-DG). XXIV International congress "Cytometry in the age of systems biology " 17-21 May, 2008 Budapest, Hungary.  Back to cited text no. 34
35.Jain VK, Kalia VK, Gopinath PM, Naqvi S, Kucheria K. Optimization of Cancer Therapy: Part III. Effects of combining 2-deoxy-D-glucose treatment with gamma irradiation on normal mice. Indian J Exp Biol 1979;17:1320-5.  Back to cited text no. 35
36.Kalia VK, Jain VK, Otto FJ. Optimization of Cancer Therapy: Part IV. Effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on radiation induced chromosomal damage in PHA-stimulated peripheral human lymphocytes. Indian J Exp Biol 1982;20:884-8.  Back to cited text no. 36
37.Shrivastava V, Mishra AK, Dwarakanath BS, Ravindranath T. Enhancement of radionuclide induced cytotoxicity by 2-DG in human tumor cell lines. J Cancer Res Ther 2006;2:57-64.  Back to cited text no. 37
38.Aft RL, Lewis JS, Zhang F, Kim J, Welch MJ. Enhancing targeted radiotherapy by copper (II)diacetyl-bis(N4methylthiosemicarbazone) using 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Cancer Res 2003;63:5496-504.  Back to cited text no. 38
39.Jason L, Dearling J, Qureshi U, Richard H, Begent J and R. Pedley B. Combining Radioimmunotherapy with Antihypoxia Therapy 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Results in Reduction of Therapeutic Efficacy. Clin Cancer Res 2007;13:1903-10.  Back to cited text no. 39
40.Dwarakanath BS, Zolzer F, Chandana S, Bauch T, Adhikari JS, Muller WU, et al. Heterogeniety in 2-deoxy-D-glucose-induced modifications in energetics and radiation responses of human tumour cell lines. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2001;50:1051-61.  Back to cited text no. 40
41.Simons AL, Fath MA, Mattson DM, Smith BJ, Walsh SA, Graham MM, et al. Enhanced response of human head and neck cancer xenograft tumors to cisplatin combined with 2-deoxy-D-glucose correlates with increased 18F-FDG uptake as determined by PET imaging. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007;69:1222-30.  Back to cited text no. 41
42.Varshney R, Dwarakanath BS, Jain V. Radiosensitization by 6-aminonicotinamide and 2-deoxy-D-glucose in human cancer cells. Int J Radiat Biol 2005;81:397-408.  Back to cited text no. 42
43.Varshney R, Gupta S, Dwarakanath BS. Radiosensitization of murine Ehrlich Ascites tumor by a combination of 2-deoxy-D-glucose and 6 amino nicotinamide. Tech Cancer Res Treat 2004;3:659-63.  Back to cited text no. 43


  [Table 1]

This article has been cited by
1 What do we know about dynamic glucose-enhanced (DGE) MRI and how close is it to the clinics? Horizon 2020 GLINT consortium report
Mina Kim, Afroditi Eleftheriou, Luca Ravotto, Bruno Weber, Michal Rivlin, Gil Navon, Martina Capozza, Annasofia Anemone, Dario Livio Longo, Silvio Aime, Moritz Zaiss, Kai Herz, Anagha Deshmane, Tobias Lindig, Benjamin Bender, Xavier Golay
Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 2-Deoxy-D-glucose increases the sensitivity of glioblastoma cells to BCNU through the regulation of glycolysis, ROS and ERS pathways: In vitro and in vivo validation
Xiaodong Sun, Tengjiao Fan, Guohui Sun, Yue Zhou, Yaxin Huang, Na Zhang, Lijiao Zhao, Rugang Zhong, Yongzhen Peng
Biochemical Pharmacology. 2022; 199: 115029
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Synergistic effect of antimetabolic and chemotherapy drugs in triple-negative breast cancer
Elena López-Camacho, Lucía Trilla-Fuertes, Angelo Gámez-Pozo, Irene Dapía, Rocío López-Vacas, Andrea Zapater-Moros, María Isabel Lumbreras-Herrera, Pedro Arias, Pilar Zamora, Juan Ángel Fresno Vara, Enrique Espinosa
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2022; 149: 112844
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 A Network-Biology led Computational Drug repurposing Strategy to prioritize therapeutic options for COVID-19
Pankaj Khurana, Rajeev Varshney, Apoorv Gupta
Heliyon. 2022; : e09387
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Inhibition of glucose transport synergizes with chemical or genetic disruption of mitochondrial metabolism and suppresses TCA cycle-deficient tumors
Kellen Olszewski, Anthony Barsotti, Xiao-Jiang Feng, Milica Momcilovic, Kevin G. Liu, Ji-In Kim, Koi Morris, Christophe Lamarque, Jack Gaffney, Xuemei Yu, Jeegar P. Patel, Joshua D. Rabinowitz, David B. Shackelford, Masha V. Poyurovsky
Cell Chemical Biology. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Metabolic perturbations in fibrosis disease
Chuin Ying Ung, Alexandros Onoufriadis, Maddy Parsons, John A. McGrath, Tanya J. Shaw
The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 2021; 139: 106073
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Metabolic response to radiation therapy in cancer
Graham H. Read, Justine Bailleul, Erina Vlashi, Aparna H. Kesarwala
Molecular Carcinogenesis. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Circle RNA circABCB10 Modulates PFN2 to Promote Breast Cancer Progression, as Well as Aggravate Radioresistance Through Facilitating Glycolytic Metabolism Via miR-223-3p
Yue Zhao, Rui Zhong, Chaoyue Deng, Zhenlin Zhou
Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals. 2021; 36(6): 477
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Metabolomics in cancer research and emerging applications in clinical oncology
Daniel R. Schmidt, Rutulkumar Patel, David G. Kirsch, Caroline A. Lewis, Matthew G. Vander Heiden, Jason W. Locasale
CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2021; 71(4): 333
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Metabolic Drivers of Invasion in Glioblastoma
Joseph H. Garcia, Saket Jain, Manish K. Aghi
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. 2021; 9
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Hypoxia-Induced Cancer Cell Responses Driving Radioresistance of Hypoxic Tumors: Approaches to Targeting and Radiosensitizing
Alexander E. Kabakov, Anna O. Yakimova
Cancers. 2021; 13(5): 1102
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Metabolic Plasticity and Combinatorial Radiosensitisation Strategies in Human Papillomavirus-Positive Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Cell Lines
Mark D. Wilkie, Emad A. Anaam, Andrew S. Lau, Carlos P. Rubbi, Nikolina Vlatkovic, Terence M. Jones, Mark T. Boyd
Cancers. 2021; 13(19): 4836
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Dual Hyaluronic Acid and Folic Acid Targeting pH-Sensitive Multifunctional [email protected]@MgO-Nano-Core–Shell-Radiosensitizer for Breast Cancer Therapy
Mostafa A. Askar, Noura M. Thabet, Gharieb S. El-Sayyad, Ahmed I. El-Batal, Mohamed Abd Elkodous, Omama E. El Shawi, Hamed Helal, Mohamed K. Abdel-Rafei
Cancers. 2021; 13(21): 5571
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Effective Synergy of Sorafenib and Nutrient Shortage in Inducing Melanoma Cell Death through Energy Stress
Fernanda Antunes, Gustavo J. S. Pereira, Renata F. Saito, Marcus V. Buri, Mara Gagliardi, Claudia Bincoletto, Roger Chammas, Gian Maria Fimia, Mauro Piacentini, Marco Corazzari, Soraya Soubhi Smaili
Cells. 2020; 9(3): 640
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 A combinatorial approach of a polypharmacological adjuvant 2-deoxy-D-glucose with low dose radiation therapy to quell the cytokine storm in COVID-19 management
Amit Verma, Amitava Adhikary, Gayle Woloschak, Bilikere S. Dwarakanath, Rao V. L. Papineni
International Journal of Radiation Biology. 2020; 96(11): 1323
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Modulation of Immuno-biome during Radio-sensitization of Tumors by Glycolytic Inhibitors
Seema Gupta, Bilikere S. Dwarakanath
Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2020; 27(24): 4002
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Metabolic characterization of aggressive breast cancer cells exhibiting invasive phenotype: impact of non-cytotoxic doses of 2-DG on diminishing invasiveness
Mayumi Fujita, Kaori Imadome, Veena Somasundaram, Miki Kawanishi, Kumiko Karasawa, David A. Wink
BMC Cancer. 2020; 20(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Hypoxia, metabolism, and the circadian clock: new links to overcome radiation resistance in high-grade gliomas
Han Shen, Kristina Cook, Harriet E. Gee, Eric Hau
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research. 2020; 39(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Loss of TRP53 (p53) accelerates tumorigenesis and changes the tumor spectrum of SJL/J mice
Jane A. Branca, Benjamin E. Low, Ruth L. Saxl, Jennifer K. Sargent, Rosalinda A. Doty, Michael V. Wiles, Beth L. Dumont, Muneer G. Hasham
Genes & Cancer. 2020; 11(1-2): 83
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Targeting metabolic dependencies in pediatric cancer
Sameer H. Issaq, Christine M. Heske
Current Opinion in Pediatrics. 2020; 32(1): 26
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Stresses in the metastatic cascade: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities
Minhong Shen, Yibin Kang
Genes & Development. 2020; 34(23-24): 1577
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 MicroRNA-1291-5p Sensitizes Pancreatic Carcinoma Cells to Arginine Deprivation and Chemotherapy through the Regulation of Arginolysis and Glycolysis
Mei-Juan Tu, Zhijian Duan, Zhenzhen Liu, Chao Zhang, Richard J. Bold, Frank J. Gonzalez, Edward J. Kim, Ai-Ming Yu
Molecular Pharmacology. 2020; 98(6): 686
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Cellular toxicity of the metabolic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose and associated resistance mechanisms
Clotilde Laussel, Sébastien Léon
Biochemical Pharmacology. 2020; 182: 114213
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 One-stop radiotherapeutic targeting of primary and distant osteosarcoma to inhibit cancer progression and metastasis using 2DG-grafted graphene quantum dots
Fu-I. Tung, Lu-Jun Zheng, Kai-Ting Hou, Chih-Sheng Chiang, Ming-Hong Chen, Tse-Ying Liu
Nanoscale. 2020; 12(16): 8809
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 The contribution of ketone bodies to glycolytic inhibition for the treatment of adult and pediatric glioblastoma
Frederic A. Vallejo, Sumedh S. Shah, Nicolas de Cordoba, Winston M. Walters, Jeffrey Prince, Ziad Khatib, Ricardo J. Komotar, Steven Vanni, Regina M. Graham
Journal of Neuro-Oncology. 2020; 147(2): 317
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Saccharide analog, 2-deoxy- d -glucose enhances 4-1BB-mediated antitumor immunity via PD-L1 deglycosylation
Bareun Kim, Ruoxuan Sun, Wonkyung Oh, Alyssa Min Jung Kim, Johann Richard Schwarz, Seung-Oe Lim
Molecular Carcinogenesis. 2020; 59(7): 691
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Co-delivery of 2-Deoxyglucose and a glutamine metabolism inhibitor V9302 via a prodrug micellar formulation for synergistic targeting of metabolism in cancer
Zhangyi Luo, Jieni Xu, Jingjing Sun, Haozhe Huang, Ziqian Zhang, Weina Ma, Zhuoya Wan, Yangwuyue Liu, Apurva Pardeshi, Song Li
Acta Biomaterialia. 2020; 105: 239
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Power of two: combination of therapeutic approaches involving glucose transporter (GLUT) inhibitors to combat cancer
Kalpana Tilekar, Neha Upadhyay, Cristina V. Iancu, Vadim Pokrovsky, Jun-yong Choe, C.S. Ramaa
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer. 2020; 1874(2): 188457
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Modulation of dysregulated cancer metabolism by plant secondary metabolites: A mechanistic review
Sajad Fakhri, Seyed Zachariah Moradi, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Anupam Bishayee
Seminars in Cancer Biology. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Effect of Liposomal Encapsulation on the Chemical Exchange Properties of Diamagnetic CEST Agents
Eleni Demetriou, Harriet E. Story, Robin Bofinger, Helen C. Hailes, Alethea B. Tabor, Xavier Golay
The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 2019; 123(35): 7545
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 The induction of HAD-like phosphatases by multiple signaling pathways confers resistance to the metabolic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose
Quentin Defenouillère, Agathe Verraes, Clotilde Laussel, Anne Friedrich, Joseph Schacherer, Sébastien Léon
Science Signaling. 2019; 12(597)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Tumor metabolism regulating chemosensitivity in ovarian cancer
Chae Young Han, David A. Patten, Richard B. Richardson, Mary-Ellen Harper, Benjamin K. Tsang
Genes & Cancer. 2018; 9(5-6): 155
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 A drug combination targeting hypoxia induced chemoresistance and stemness in glioma cells
Akansha Jalota, Mukesh Kumar, Bhudev C. Das, Ajay K. Yadav, Kunzang Chosdol, Subrata Sinha
Oncotarget. 2018; 9(26): 18351
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Low dose of 2-deoxy-D-glucose kills acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells and reverses glucocorticoid resistance via N-linked glycosylation inhibition under normoxia
Ling Gu, Zhihui Yi, Yanle Zhang, Zhigui Ma, Yiping Zhu, Ju Gao
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(19): 30978
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 microRNA-33a-5p increases radiosensitivity by inhibiting glycolysis in melanoma
Ke Cao, Jingjing Li, Jia Chen, Li Qian, Aijun Wang, Xiang Chen, Wei Xiong, Jintian Tang, Shijie Tang, Yong Chen, Yao Chen, Yan Cheng, Jianda Zhou
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(48): 83660
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Metabolic modulation of Ewing sarcoma cells inhibits tumor growth and stem cell properties
Atreyi Dasgupta, Matteo Trucco, Nino Rainusso, Ronald J. Bernardi, Ryan Shuck, Lyazat Kurenbekova, David M. Loeb, Jason T. Yustein
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(44): 77292
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Targeting glucose metabolism in cancer: a new class of agents for loco-regional and systemic therapy of liver cancer and beyond?
Lynn Jeanette Savic, Julius Chapiro, Gregor Duwe, Jean-François Geschwind
Hepatic Oncology. 2016; 3(1): 19
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 EGFR Signaling Enhances Aerobic Glycolysis in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells to Promote Tumor Growth and Immune Escape
Seung-Oe Lim, Chia-Wei Li, Weiya Xia, Heng-Huan Lee, Shih-Shin Chang, Jia Shen, Jennifer L. Hsu, Daniel Raftery, Danijel Djukovic, Haiwei Gu, Wei-Chao Chang, Hung-Ling Wang, Mong-Liang Chen, Longfei Huo, Chung-Hsuan Chen, Yun Wu, Aysegul Sahin, Samir M. Hanash, Gabriel N. Hortobagyi, Mien-Chie Hung
Cancer Research. 2016; 76(5): 1284
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 Molecular Pathways: Targeting Cellular Energy Metabolism in Cancer via Inhibition of SLC2A1 and LDHA
Aik T. Ooi, Brigitte N. Gomperts
Clinical Cancer Research. 2015; 21(11): 2440
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 Identification of the determinants of 2-deoxyglucose sensitivity in cancer cells by shRNA library screening
Hiroki Kobayashi, Haruna Nishimura, Ken Matsumoto, Minoru Yoshida
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2015; 467(1): 121
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 PARP and other prospective targets for poisoning cancer cell metabolism
Judith Michels,Florine Obrist,Maria Castedo,Ilio Vitale,Guido Kroemer
Biochemical Pharmacology. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 2-Deoxy-D-glucose targeting of glucose metabolism in cancer cells as a potential therapy
Dongsheng Zhang,Juan Li,Fengzhen Wang,Jun Hu,Shuwei Wang,Yueming Sun
Cancer Letters. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Targeting pyruvate kinase M2 contributes to radiosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo
Mao-Bin Meng,Huan-Huan Wang,Wen-Hao Guo,Zhi-Qiang Wu,Xian-Liang Zeng,Nicholas G. Zaorsky,Hua-Shan Shi,Dong Qian,Zhi-Min Niu,Bo Jiang,Lu-Jun Zhao,Zhi-Yong Yuan,Ping Wang
Cancer Letters. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Overcoming 5-Fu resistance in human non-small cell lung cancer cells by the combination of 5-Fu and cisplatin through the inhibition of glucose metabolism
Jun-gang Zhao,Kai-ming Ren,Jun Tang
Tumor Biology. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 Functional molecular imaging of tumors by chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI of 3-O-Methyl-D-glucose
Michal Rivlin,Ilan Tsarfaty,Gil Navon
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2014; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Calories, carbohydrates, and cancer therapy with radiation: exploiting the five R’s through dietary manipulation
Rainer J. Klement,Colin E. Champ
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Energy metabolism targeted drugs synergize with photodynamic therapy to potentiate breast cancer cell death
Xiaolan Feng,Yi Zhang,Pan Wang,Quanhong Liu,Xiaobing Wang
Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.. 2014; 13(12): 1793
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Investigational cancer drugs targeting cell metabolism in clinical development
Douglas W Sborov,Bradley M Haverkos,Pamela J Harris
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 2014; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Upregulation of glucose metabolism by NF- B2/p52 mediates enzalutamide resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells
Y. Cui,N. Nadiminty,C. Liu,W. Lou,C. T. Schwartz,A. C. Gao
Endocrine Related Cancer. 2014; 21(3): 435
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 Imaging brain deoxyglucose uptake and metabolism by glucoCEST MRI
Fatima A Nasrallah,Guilhem Pagès,Philip W Kuchel,Xavier Golay,Kai-Hsiang Chuang
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism. 2013; 33(8): 1270
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
51 Metabolic targets for cancer therapy
Lorenzo Galluzzi,Oliver Kepp,Matthew G. Vander Heiden,Guido Kroemer
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 2013; 12(11): 829
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
52 Molecular imaging of tumors and metastases using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI
Michal Rivlin,Judith Horev,Ilan Tsarfaty,Gil Navon
Scientific Reports. 2013; 3
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 Optimization of Tumor Radiotherapy With Modulators of Cell Metabolism: Toward Clinical Applications
Pierre Danhier,Christophe J. De Saedeleer,Oussama Karroum,Géraldine De Preter,Paolo E. Porporato,Bénédicte F. Jordan,Bernard Gallez,Pierre Sonveaux
Seminars in Radiation Oncology. 2013; 23(4): 262
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
54 NaBH3CN and other systems as substitutes of tin and silicon hydrides in the light or heat-initiated reduction of halosugars: a tunable access to either 2-deoxy sugars or 1,5-anhydro-itols
Isabelle Bruyère,Zoltan Tóth,Hamida Benyahia,Jia Lu Xue,Jean-Pierre Praly
Tetrahedron. 2013; 69(46): 9656
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
55 Berberine combined with 2-deoxy-d-glucose synergistically enhances cancer cell proliferation inhibition via energy depletion and unfolded protein response disruption
Li-xia Fan,Chang-mei Liu,An-hui Gao,Yu-bo Zhou,Jia Li
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects. 2013; 1830(11): 5175
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
56 miR-143 inhibits glycolysis and depletes stemness of glioblastoma stem-like cells
Shiguang Zhao,Huailei Liu,Yaohua Liu,Jianing Wu,Chunlei Wang,Xu Hou,Xiaofeng Chen,Guang Yang,Ling Zhao,Hui Che,Yunke Bi,Hongyu Wang,Fei Peng,Jing Ai
Cancer Letters. 2013; 333(2): 253
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
57 Mitochondria-targeted drugs synergize with 2-deoxyglucose to trigger breast cancer cell death
Cheng, G., Zielonka, J., Dranka, B.P., McAllister, D., Mackinnon Jr., A.C., Joseph, J., Kalyanaraman, B.
Cancer Research. 2012; 72(10): 2634-2644
58 Jc virus t-antigen regulates glucose metabolic pathways in brain tumor cells
Noch, E., Sariyer, I.K., Gordon, J., Khalili, K.
PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(4): art-35054
59 Targeting cancer metabolism - Aiming at a tumouræs sweet-spot
Jones, N.P., Schulze, A.
Drug Discovery Today. 2012; 17(5-6): 232-241
60 Oncogenic Viruses and Tumor Glucose Metabolism: Like Kids in a Candy Store
Evan Noch, Kamel Khalili
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. 2012; 11(1): 14
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
61 Molecular Pathways: Tumor Cells Co-opt the Brain-Specific Metabolism Gene CPT1C to Promote Survival
Patrick T. Reilly, Tak W. Mak
Clinical Cancer Research. 2012; 18(21): 5850
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
62 Targeting Hypoxia, HIF-1, and Tumor Glucose Metabolism to Improve Radiotherapy Efficacy
Tineke W.H. Meijer, Johannes H.A.M. Kaanders, Paul N. Span, Johan Bussink
Clinical Cancer Research. 2012; 18(20): 5585
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
63 Finding a Panacea among Combination Cancer Therapies
Ryuji Yamaguchi, Guy Perkins
Cancer Research. 2012; 72(1): 18
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
64 Mitochondria-Targeted Drugs Synergize with 2-Deoxyglucose to Trigger Breast Cancer Cell Death
Gang Cheng, Jacek Zielonka, Brian P. Dranka, Donna McAllister, A. Craig Mackinnon, Joy Joseph, Balaraman Kalyanaraman
Cancer Research. 2012; 72(10): 2634
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
65 Caloric Restriction Mimetic 2-Deoxyglucose Antagonizes Doxorubicin-induced Cardiomyocyte Death by Multiple Mechanisms
Kai Chen, Xianmin Xu, Satoru Kobayashi, Derek Timm, Tyler Jepperson, Qiangrong Liang
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2011; 286(25): 21993
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
66 2-deoxy-D-glucose combined with ferulic acid enhances radiation response in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells
Bandugula Venkata Reddy, N. Rajendra Prasad
Central European Journal of Biology. 2011; 6(5): 743
[VIEW] | [DOI]
67 Caloric restriction mimetic 2-deoxyglucose antagonizes doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte death by multiple mechanisms
Chen, K., Xu, X., Kobayashi, S., Timm, D., Jepperson, T., Liang, Q.
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2011; 286(25): 21993-22006
68 Towards Tailored therapy of glioblastoma multiforme
Rekers, N.H., Sminia, P., Peters, G.J.
Journal of Chemotherapy. 2011; 23(4): 187-199
69 Targeting target cancer metabolism what is fuelling the resurgence?
Jones, N.P.
Drug Discovery World. 2011; 12(4): 64-75
70 Glucose, not glutamine, is the dominant energy source required for proliferation and survival of head and neck squamous carcinoma cells
Vlad C. Sandulache, Thomas J. Ow, Curtis R. Pickering, Mitchell J. Frederick, Ge Zhou, Izabela Fokt, Melinda Davis-Malesevich, Waldemar Priebe, Jeffrey N. Myers
Cancer. 2011; : n/a
[VIEW] | [DOI]
71 Individualizing antimetabolic treatment strategies for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma based on TP53 mutational status
Vlad C. Sandulache, Heath D. Skinner, Thomas J. Ow, Aijun Zhang, Xuefeng Xia, James M. Luchak, Lee-Jun C. Wong, Curtis R. Pickering, Ge Zhou, Jeffrey N. Myers
Cancer. 2011; : n/a
[VIEW] | [DOI]
72 Glycolysis inhibition by 2-deoxy-d-glucose reverts the metastatic phenotype in vitro and in vivo
Joseph L. Sottnik, Janet C. Lori, Barbara J. Rose, Douglas H. Thamm
Clinical & Experimental Metastasis. 2011;
[VIEW] | [DOI]
73 Targeting cancer metabolism – aiming at a tumouræs sweet-spot
Neil P. Jones, Almut Schulze
Drug Discovery Today. 2011;
[VIEW] | [DOI]
74 Is the restricted ketogenic diet a viable alternative to the standard of care for managing malignant brain cancer?
Thomas N. Seyfried, Jeremy Marsh, Laura M. Shelton, Leanne C. Huysentruyt, Purna Mukherjee
Epilepsy Research. 2011;
[VIEW] | [DOI]
75 Multicentric gliomas misdiagnosed as metastatic tumors: One case report and literature review
Peng Wang, Ming-can Wu, Shi-jie Chen, Yong Yang, Guang-rui Zhao
Clinical Oncology and Cancer Research. 2010; 7(5): 317
[VIEW] | [DOI]
76 2-DG enhances chemosensitivity of breast cancer cells to adriamycin
Cheng, X., Liu, H., Fang, L., Su, F., Song, L.-L., Ma, L.-Y., Jiang, G.-J., (...), Jiang, Z.-W.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin. 2010; 26(10): 1371-1376
77 Glucose transporter-1 as a new therapeutic target in laryngeal carcinoma
Luo, X.-M., Zhou, S.-H., Fan, J.
Journal of International Medical Research. 2010; 38(6): 1885-1892


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  >Abstract>Introduction>Prominent Effect...>Pharmacology and...>Treatment of Can...>2-DG as a Differ...>131-I and 2-DG ...>Systematic Phase...>Conclusions and ...>Acknowledgements>Article Tables
  In this article

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded960    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 77    

Recommend this journal