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Figure 5: Effect of indomethacin on cytokine-induced cholangiocarcinoma cell migration and invasion. (a) Scratch wounds of monolayer KKU-100 cells were treated with vehicle, cytokine mixture (IL-6 100 ng/mL + interferon-γ 100 ng/mL + tumor necrosis factor-α 20 ng/mL), or a combination of cytokine and indomethacin (5, 10, and 25 μM) for 24 h. Representative images of wound healing were obtained at the time of the scratch and 24 h later. (b) The graph shows the level of cell migration into the wound scratch quantified as the percentage of wound closure at 24 h. Data represent the mean ± standard deviation averaged from quadruplets of one experiment. (c) The invasion ability was assessed using the transwell invasion assay. KKU-100 cells were treated with vehicle, a cytokine mixture, or a combination of cytokine and indomethacin for 24 h. Invaded cells were fixed, stained with crystal violet, and photographed. (d) The graph shows the quantitative analysis of invaded cells. Data represent the mean ± standard deviation of three independent experiments as follows: CT = Control; CK = Cytokine mixture; and IDC = Indomethacin. *P < 0.05 versus control. #P < 0.05 versus cytokine mixture alone

Figure 5: Effect of indomethacin on cytokine-induced cholangiocarcinoma cell migration and invasion. (a) Scratch wounds of monolayer KKU-100 cells were treated with vehicle, cytokine mixture (IL-6 100 ng/mL + interferon-γ 100 ng/mL + tumor necrosis factor-α 20 ng/mL), or a combination of cytokine and indomethacin (5, 10, and 25 μM) for 24 h. Representative images of wound healing were obtained at the time of the scratch and 24 h later. (b) The graph shows the level of cell migration into the wound scratch quantified as the percentage of wound closure at 24 h. Data represent the mean ± standard deviation averaged from quadruplets of one experiment. (c) The invasion ability was assessed using the transwell invasion assay. KKU-100 cells were treated with vehicle, a cytokine mixture, or a combination of cytokine and indomethacin for 24 h. Invaded cells were fixed, stained with crystal violet, and photographed. (d) The graph shows the quantitative analysis of invaded cells. Data represent the mean ± standard deviation of three independent experiments as follows: CT = Control; CK = Cytokine mixture; and IDC = Indomethacin. *<i>P</i> < 0.05 versus control. <sup>#</sup><i>P</i> < 0.05 versus cytokine mixture alone