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   2018| December  | Volume 14 | Issue 12  
    Online since December 11, 2018

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PTEN and SHIP: Impact on lymphatic metastasis in breast cancer
Kai Li, Guo-dong Li, Li-yan Sun, Xiang-qi Li
December 2018, 14(12):937-941
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.193894  PMID:30539826
Lymph node metastasis is the most common form of metastasis in breast cancer and a crucial indicator influencing breast cancer treatment results. The biological process of lymph node metastasis involves deficiency and mutation of tumor suppressor genes. PTEN and SHIP are critical indicators used to detect occurrence, development, invasion, and metastasis of breast cancer. Loss of expressions of PTEN and SHIP may contribute to lymphatic metastasis of breast cancer, so they can be used as objective indicators for judging the biological behavior of breast cancer. In this study, we perform a comprehensive analysis to investigate the effect of PTEN and SHIP gene expression on regulating lymph node metastasis in breast cancer.
  1,975 77 -
Ultrasonographic diagnosis of benign masseter muscle hypertrophy: A case report
Vihag Vinod Naphade, Sameer G Kedia, Pallavi Patil, Siddhant Khare
December 2018, 14(12):1237-1240
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.204889  PMID:30539880
Masseter hypertrophy is a characteristic condition resulting from an increase in the size of the muscle mass. At times, it produces significant facial asymmetry and is an important finding in the differential diagnosis of similar located entities. A proper diagnosis of this condition would avoid more aggressive and unwarranted therapy by an inexperienced clinician who may mistake it for a more serious pathologic condition. This article reports two cases of bilateral masseter hypertrophy having characteristic diagnostic features, along with specialized imaging modalities and review of literature.
  1,768 108 -
Meta-analysis on the association between xeroderma pigmentosum Group A A23G polymorphism and esophageal cancer in a Chinese population
Jiang-Lan Xu, Jing Bai, Jian-Feng Jiao, Li Ding, Li Lei, Xiao-Ping Bai, Yu-Feng Cheng
December 2018, 14(12):1173-1177
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.184517  PMID:30539866
Aim of the Study: Several studies have evaluated the correlation between xeroderma pigmentosum Group A (XPA) A23G polymorphism (rs 1800975) and esophageal cancer in Chinese people. However, the results are inconsistent. To assess the effects of XPA A23G variants on the risk for development of esophageal cancer in the Chinese population, a meta-analysis was performed. Materials and Methods: Studies were identified using PubMed and Chinese databases through December 2015. The associations were assessed with pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results: This meta-analysis identified seven studies including 1514 esophageal cancer cases and 2120 controls. In the overall analysis, no significant association between XPA A23G polymorphism and esophageal cancer was found in the Chinese population. In the subgroup analyses by geographic area(s) and source of controls, significant results were only found in studies with hospital-based controls (GG vs. AA: OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.28–0.62; GG vs. AA + AG: OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.39–0.78; GG + AG vs. AA: OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.40–0.72; G vs. A: OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.50–0.75). Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggested that XPA A23G gene polymorphism may be one low-penetrant risk factor for esophageal cancer in Chinese individuals.
  1,677 57 -
Expression of programmed death ligand-1 and programmed death 1 in hepatocellular carcinoma and its clinical significance
J Long, Tao Qu, XF Pan, X Tang, HH Wan, P Qiu, Yan-Hua Xu
December 2018, 14(12):1188-1192
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.204850  PMID:30539869
Objective: To investigate the correlation between the expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1) and PD ligand-1 (PD-L1) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and clinical parameters. Materials and Methods: The study comprised tumor sections from 45 HCC patients treated with curative resection, which were evaluated for PD-1 and PD-L1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Results: PD-1 and PD-L1 expression was increased in cancers compared to adjacent normal tissues, with a positive rate of 37.78% (17/45) and 62.22% (28/45), respectively, which was positively correlated with the tumor stage and lymph node metastasis, negatively with postoperative prognosis. PD-1 positivity was most frequently observed in stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. The number of PD-1 positive lymphocyte was correlated with PD-L1 positive expression. Conclusion: PD-L1 and PD-1 are overexpressed in HCC tissues. PD-L1 expression plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of human HCC, suggesting that it might be used as a new biomarker to predict the disease progression and prognosis.
  1,596 74 -
Bleeding risk in cancer patients treated with sorafenib: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Chao Dai, Fan Zhou, Jiang-Hua Shao, Lin-Quan Wu, Xin Yu, Xiang-Bao Yin
December 2018, 14(12):948-956
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.188430  PMID:30539828
Objective: Sorafenib, an oral vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, has become a cornerstone in the treatment of various malignancies. However, concerns have arisen regarding the risk of hemorrhage with sorafenib use. Nevertheless, the contribution of sorafenib to hemorrhage and the underlying risk factors remains unclear. Materials and Methods: We performed a meta-analysis to determine the incidence and risk of hemorrhage associated with sorafenib treatment. Multiple databases were searched to identify relevant studies. The analysis included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that directly compared cancer patients treated with or without sorafenib. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the overall incidence, relative risks (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using fixed- or random-effect models. Results: Ten RCTs involving 4720 patients were included in the analysis. Overall, the incidence rates of all- and high-grade hemorrhage in patients receiving sorafenib were 9.89% (95% CI: 8.73–11.18%) and 2.86% (95% CI: 2.25–3.63%), respectively. Sorafenib treatment increased the risk of all-grade hemorrhage in patients compared to control treatment (RR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.59–2.49; P < 0.00001), but did not increase the incidence of high-grade hemorrhage (RR: 1.42; 95% CI: 0.95–2.12; P = 0.09). Subgroup analysis showed no significant increase in the risk of hemorrhage between patients with various malignancies or concurrent treatment. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusion: In patients with malignancy, sorafenib treatment combined with standard treatment significantly increases the risk of low-grade hemorrhagic events.
  1,493 81 -
Glutathione S-transferase mu-1, glutathione S-transferase theta-1 null genotypes, and oral cancer risk: A meta-analysis in the Chinese population
Jie-Yi Li, Li-Na Huang, Hong-Lei Xue, Qing-Qing Zhu, Cong-Hua Li
December 2018, 14(12):1052-1056
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.199786  PMID:30539845
Aim of Study: Several studies have evaluated the correlation between glutathione S-transferase mu-1 (GSTM1), GST theta-1 (GSTT1) polymorphisms and oral cancer in Chinese people. However, the results are inconsistent. To assess the effects of GSTM1, GSTT1 null genotypes on the risk for development of oral cancer in the Chinese population, a meta-analysis was performed. Materials and Methods: Studies were identified using PubMed and Chinese databases through February 2016. The associations were assessed with pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: This meta-analysis included six studies with 1306 oral cancer cases and 1484 controls. In the overall analysis, no significant association between GSTM1, GSTT1 polymorphisms and oral cancer was found in the Chinese population. In the subgroup analyses by geographic areas and source of controls, significant risk was found between GSTM1 null genotype and oral cancer in Mainland China (OR = 2.715, 95% CI = 2.17–3.38), but not in Taiwan China. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis suggested that GSTM1 null genotype might be associated with an increased risk of developing oral cancer in individuals from Mainland China.
  1,445 61 -
Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor: A case report and literature review
Li-li Fan, Yang Shen, Kenneth Chanda, Mu-Lan Ren
December 2018, 14(12):1209-1212
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.204893  PMID:30539872
Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor (UTROSCT) are a rare, multi-phenotype sex-cord tumors, containing a structure which is characteristic with the trabecular, cord, nests, and false adenoid arrangement. In addition, CD99-positive was a basis for diagnosis of the disease. With uncertain malignant potential and relapse, these patients should be closely followed up. This article is to summarize clinical and pathological features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of UTROSCT.
  1,374 71 -
Severe hypercalcemia: A rare and unusual presentation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Swaminathan Dhivyasree, Jeevarathnam Dhivyalakshmi, Shuba Sankaranarayanan, Julius Xavier Scott
December 2018, 14(12):1244-1246
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.187240  PMID:30539882
Hypercalcemia is a rare and unusual complication of childhood malignancies. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) presenting with hypercalcemia and lytic bone lesions is very rare in children. Here, we report a case of a 4-year-old girl with ALL who presented with severe hypercalcemia and radiological evidence of osteolytic lesions. Malignancies are the most common parathyroid hormone-independent cause of hypercalcemia. Severe hypercalcemia is a life-threatening emergency that should be addressed immediately. Effective treatment includes intense hydration, frusemide, calcitonin, and bisphosphonate in addition to the treatment of underlying cause.
  1,321 105 -
Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney with liver metastasis: A case report and literature review
Ning Zhang, Dongxiao Zhou, Kai Chen, Hongyan Zhang, Bingcang Huang
December 2018, 14(12):1217-1219
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.204885  PMID:30539874
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell soft tissue tumor which is rarely encountered in the clinical setting and imaging findings are nonspecific, mainly occurring in the tissue structure of the serosa. However, there is very little report on SFT originating in the kidney in the medical literature. We report a case of SFT with liver metastasis in an adult female and discuss the pathological features as it appears in our case.
  1,334 81 -
Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma mimicking complicated epididymal cyst
Mete Kilciler, Mustafa Kadihasanoglu, Ozcan Atahan
December 2018, 14(12):1241-1243
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.183553  PMID:30539881
Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare nongerm cell intrascrotal malignant tumor in children and young adult/teens resulting from the mesenchymal tissues of the tunica vaginalis, epididymis, spermatic cord, and testis. RMS accounts for approximately 7% of all genitourinary tract RMSs and 12% of all pediatric scrotal neoplasms. Patients usually present with a painless unilateral scrotal mass. We report a 16-year-old boy with a paratesticular RMS mimicking epididymal cyst. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature presenting as an epididymal cyst.
  1,332 79 -
Treatment strategy for huge hepatocellular carcinoma with intrahepatic metastasis and macrovascular invasion: a case report and literature review
Chuanchao He, Zhenyu Zhou, Zhiyu Xiao, Jie Wang
December 2018, 14(12):1233-1236
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.204845  PMID:30539879
Macrovascular invasion, such as tumor thrombus in the major portal vein (mPVTT) or major hepatic vein (mHVTT), is regarded as indicative of an advanced stage of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To date, no effective treatment has been established for this kind of HCC. We herein present a case of huge HCC with intrahepatic metastasis, mPVTT, and mHVTT. The patient was successfully treated with surgical resection-based multidisciplinary treatment. The clinical presentation, treatment strategy, and outcome of this case were presented.
  1,335 76 -
Laminin is over expressed in breast cancer and facilitate cancer cell metastasis
Xia Qiu, Haosheng Tan, Deyuan Fu, Yuxiang Zhu, Jiaxin Zhang
December 2018, 14(12):1170-1172
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.191035  PMID:30539865
Aim of Study: Breast cancer invasion and metastasis is the main reason for the failure, and laminin is involved in it. This study intends to explore the expression of laminin in breast cancer and normal breast tissue and its clinical significance. Materials and Methods: We use immunohistochemical assay for the detection of breast infiltrating ductal cancer tissues and normal breast tissues of laminin expression and discuss their role in breast cancer invasion and metastasis. Results: Our results showed that laminin was positive expressed in normal breast tissue, and strongly positive expressed but lost its' continuity in the breast cancer tissue. Conclusion: This results revealed laminin is involved in breast cancer invasion and metastasis, and we can use this to determine whether the integrity of a basement membrane for differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors.
  1,324 61 -
Appleby operation for carcinoma of the body and tail of the pancreas
Quan Shen, Qing-Feng Jiang, Yu-Wei Tian, Miao Yu, Jiang-Kun Jia, Huan-Zhou Xue
December 2018, 14(12):1019-1023
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.199383  PMID:30539839
Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Appleby operation for carcinoma of the body and tail of pancreas. Materials and Methods: From March 2010 to February 2015, Appleby operation was performed in 17 patients with carcinoma of the body and tail of pancreas. The values of fasting plasma blood, body weight (BW), visual analog pain intensity scale (VAS score), and the quality of life indices were evaluated before and 1 day, 1, 2, 6 weeks after surgery. Survival time, tumor recurrence time, hospitalization time, and treatment-related complications were analyzed. Results: There was no hospital mortality. Pancreatic fistula and diarrhea were major and most frequent. The rate of morbidity in general was 47.1%. After operation, all of the patients were completely pain-free. The VAS score decreased more after surgery comparing with before (83.2 ± 8.5 vs. 1.9 ± 3.6, P < 0.05). After operation, patients gained more than their preoperative BW with a mean increment of (4.1 ± 1.3 kg) (68.1 ± 4.3 vs. 64.0 ± 6.7, P < 0.05). A significant rise of the overall quality of life index was observed after surgery (93.8 ± 9.7 vs. 68.6 ± 6.7, P < 0.05). The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year recurrence rates were 22.9%, 58.9%, 72.6%, and 72.6%, respectively. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates after operation were 80.4%, 54.2%, 32.5%, and 16.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Appleby operation is both safe and effective with regard to pain relief and improvement of overall quality of life. Appleby operation can also achieve a high survival rate and a long overall survival time.
  1,317 61 -
Symptomatic treatment of brain metastases in renal cell carcinoma with sorafenib
Dongyan Hu, Yu Hu, Jisheng Li, Xiuwen Wang
December 2018, 14(12):1223-1226
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.189402  PMID:30539876
Brain metastasis is synchronous to the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The prognosis of brain metastasis in RCC with the current treatment options is dismissal. Therefore, we present a case of an elderly female patient with RCC showing a partial response of brain metastasis after 18 months of 600 mg once daily sorafenib treatment who underwent right-sided nephrectomy. Further, withdrawal of sorafenib resulted in psychiatric changes along with increased metastasis lesions, which were recovered upon resuming the treatment, proposing that oral sorafenib can be used safely and efficiently for treatment of brain metastasis in advanced RCC.
  1,274 78 -
Capecitabine monotherapy in advanced breast cancer resistant to anthracycline and taxane: A meta-analysis
Zhansheng Jiang, Yanfang Yang, Ling Li, Zhensong Yue, Lan Lan, Zhanyu Pan
December 2018, 14(12):957-963
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.187384  PMID:30539829
Background: Capecitabine monotherapy is usually used for advanced breast cancer (ABC) resistant to anthracycline and taxane, but there are still many other options too. Our meta-analysis assessed whether capecitabine monotherapy was superior or noninferior to the other regimens in ABC pretreated with anthracycline and taxane. Materials and Methods: PubMed databases and abstracts from the proceedings of American Society of Clinical Oncology and San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium were searched for randomized controlled trials that compared capecitabine monotherapy with other regimens for ABC progression after anthracycline- and taxane-treatment. Hazard ratios (HRs) were used for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Risk ratios (RRs) were used for overall response rate (ORR) and Grade 3–4 drug-related adverse events. All statistical analyses were conducted with RevMan 5.3 software, and statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. Results: In total, 4671 patients from eight trials were included. Target therapy as treatment group was involved in four trials, and the other four trials were merely chemotherapy in treatment group. Our study indicated that capecitabine monotherapy was not superior but also noninferior to the other regimens in ORR (RR = 1.32−95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98–1.77, P = 0.07), PFS (HR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.85–1.25, P = 0.76), and OS (HR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.88–1.05, P = 0.40). Subgroup analysis showed that both the other chemotherapy regimens and target drugs failed to improve efficacy compared with capecitabine monotherapy, and target drugs could shorten PFS (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.06–1.39, P = 0.004). Incidences of Grade 3–4 hematology toxicity in other regimens group significantly increased compared with capecitabine monotherapy. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that capecitabine monotherapy could be the first choice for ABC pretreated with anthracycline and taxane due to its efficacy and low toxicity.
  1,243 99 -
Radioprotective effect of melatonin on expression of Cdkn1a and Rad50 genes in rat peripheral blood
Hamed Rezaeejam, Alireza Shirazi, Pantea Izadi, Javad Tavakkoly Bazzaz, Mahmoud Ghazi-Khansari, Majid Valizadeh, Ghasem Azizi Tabesh
December 2018, 14(12):1070-1075
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.196758  PMID:30539848
Objective: Ionizing radiation is a critical threat to biomolecules, especially DNA. Various combinatorial compounds have been studied to protect this biomolecule. Melatonin has been reported as a direct and indirect free radical scavenger, but in this study, we explored the effect of melatonin on assisting in DNA repair by expression of Cdkn1a and Rad50; both of these genes are involved in DNA repair signaling, induced by radiation in rat peripheral blood. Materials and Methods: Rats were irradiated with single whole-body linear accelerator X-ray radiation doses of 2 and 8 Gy with or without melatonin (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatments. The rats were randomly divided into nine groups and given an intraperitoneal injection of melatonin or the same volume of vehicle alone 1 h before radiation. Blood samples were taken 8, 24, and 48 h postradiation to measure gene expression of Cdkn1a and Rad50 using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique. Results: Melatonin pretreatment increased the expression of Cdkn1a and Rad50 in 8 and 24 h postradiations (2 and 8 Gy) (P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference in 48 h postradiation compared to the radiation-only and vehicle plus radiation (2 and 8 Gy) groups. Conclusions: Based on our results, pretreatment with melatonin (100 mg/kg) may ameliorates injurious effects of 2 and 8 Gy ionization radiation by increasing the expression level of Cdkn1a and Rad50 in rat peripheral blood and assist in DNA double-strand breaks repair, especially during the early postradiation.
  1,242 94 -
Xi huang pills enhance the tumor treatment efficacy when combined with chemotherapy: A meta-analysis and systematic review
Qiujun Guo, Xinyao Xu, Shulin He, Yuan Yuan, Shuntai Chen, Baojin Hua
December 2018, 14(12):1012-1018
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.192795  PMID:30539838
Objective: To evaluate Xi huang pill combined with chemotherapy for tumor treatment in a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: We searched PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, the Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the Weipu database and Wanfang Databases for eligible studies. We manually searched for printed journals and relevant textbooks. Statistical analyses were performed with Review Manager 5.3 (Cochrane Community, London, United Kingdom) and STATA 12.0 software packages. Results: Fifteen studies were included. Xi huang pill combined with chemotherapy could enhance response (risk ratio [RR] =1.35, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.14–1.60, P < 0.0004), improve disease control (RR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05–1.21, P = 0.0006), prolong overall survival (hazard ratio = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.08–0.98, P = 0.03), improve patient quality of life (RR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.10–1.67, P < 0.004), reduce 2–4° leukocyte (white blood cell) and platelet count due to chemotherapy (pooled RR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.30–0.60, pooled RR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.25–0.72, respectively). Conclusion: Xi huang pill combined with chemotherapy can enhance the short-term efficacy and overall survival, alleviate treatment-induced side effects, and serve as a suitable regimen for the treatment of patients with tumors. However, the findings of the current study require validation in further high-quality trials.
  1,244 56 -
Norcantharidin combined with diamminedichloroplatinum inhibits tumor growth and cancerometastasis of hepatic carcinoma in murine
Xiao-Ping Zhang, Lu-Lu Luo, Yong-Qi Liu, Xue-Song Liu, Fang-Yu An, Shao-Bo Sun, Xiao-Rong Xie, Guang-Qin Geng, Xue-Juan Chen, Zhen-Dong Li
December 2018, 14(12):1035-1040
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.192852  PMID:30539842
Aim: Norcantharidin (NCTD) has been used as a clinical antineoplastic drug in China for several years, and diamminedichloroplatinum is a valuable clinical cancer chemotherapy agent. Here, we tried to investigate the effects of NCTD plus diamminedichloroplatinum on hepatic carcinoma in murine. Materials and Methods: In vivo and in vitro investigations on anticancer effects of the two drugs were individually made. Result: In vitro, the combination of the two drugs resulted in apparent apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibitions of H22 cancer cells. Meanwhile, their coadministration in vivo produced significant suppressions of tumor growth and cancerometastasis. Further, CD31 immunohistochemistry and matrigel tube formation assay demonstrated that angiogenesis was inhibited by NCTD plus diamminedichloroplatinum in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the findings, we concluded that NCTD plus diamminedichloroplatinum may have an additive anticancer efficacy because the two drugs work in different ways, and thus, their combination had inhibited cancer cell proliferations and tumor angiogenesis more effectively than either of the compounds alone.
  1,232 56 -
Impact of season of diagnosis on mortality among breast cancer survivors
Irena Kuzmickiene, Vydmantas Atkocius, Eduardas Aleknavicius, Valerijus Ostapenko
December 2018, 14(12):1091-1097
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.191064  PMID:30539851
Introduction: There is mounting evidence that the time of breast cancer diagnosis and the start of treatment can improve survival rates. The aim of this study was to test the relationship between the season of breast cancer diagnosis and the survival of women patients receiving standard surgery treatment with radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: The nonmetastatic breast cancer patients (n = 991) were followed from the date of diagnosis until death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated in models adjusted for clinicopathologic and treatment factors. Results: After adjusting for independent prognostic variables, we found that patients diagnosed in summer and autumn had a 40% reduced risk for 0–3-year mortality when compared to those diagnosed in spring. Among women aged <50 years, HRs comparing autumn with spring diagnosis categories were 0.53 (95% CI: 0.31–0.91) for 0–5-years and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.46–0.89) for 5–10-years after diagnosis. Diagnosis in autumn was associated with improving survival in younger patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (HR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.39–0.96, P = 0.003). Conclusions: The diagnosis in summer and autumn was associated with a better overall prognosis. The effect of season of diagnosis on survival rate was most pronounced in the young age patients receiving chemotherapy.
  1,142 101 -
Nuclear forkhead box O3a accumulation contributing to the proliferative suppression in liver cancer cells by PI3K/Akt signaling pathway
Yibin Hou, Ge Sun, Xu Jiang, Zhongsheng Zhu, Jijin Yang
December 2018, 14(12):1124-1128
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.204891  PMID:30539857
Background: Serine/threonine kinase is originally identified as an oncogene and the forkhead box transcription factor forkhead box O3a (Foxo3a) has been found to be decreased in various human cancers. In the present study, we explored the expression of Akt and FOXO3a in liver cancer cells. Materials and Methods: Akt level was detected by Western blotting analysis. Cell viability of HepG2, MHCC-97H, Bel7402, and L02 was determined by MTT assay. FoxO3a level was determined by Western blotting analysis. Results: Akt level was significantly higher in liver cancer cell lines HepG2 and MHCC97-H, compared with the immortalized liver cell line L02. MTT assay results demonstrated that LY294002 significantly suppressed cell proliferation of HepG2 and MHCC-97H cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The underlying molecular mechanism was that miR-370 inhibited cell proliferation of liver cancer cells by activating FoxO3a. Conclusion: PI3K inhibitor decreased the levels of phosphorylated FOXO3a and increased the levels of nuclear FOXO3a. It also inhibited cell proliferation of liver cancer cells partly by PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a signaling pathways.
  1,192 51 -
miR-27a is highly expressed in H1650 cancer stem cells and regulates proliferation, migration, and invasion
Wenwen Luo, Deyi Zhang, Shumin Ma, Chenyao Wang, Qian Zhang, Huafei Wang, Kunyan He, Zhixue Liu
December 2018, 14(12):1004-1011
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.199450  PMID:30539837
Background: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor relapse after chemotherapy and radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study is to explore the profile and role of microRNA (miRNA) in CSC of NSCLC. Materials and Methods: We studied the expression of stem cell marker in side population cells and serum-free cultured spheres of NSCLC. We identified that CD133+ CD34 cells are NSCLC stem cell. We isolated CD133+ CD34 cells and CD133 CD34+ cells with MicroBead Kit. We verified that H1650 CD133+ CD34 cells have CSC characteristics with doxorubicin, radiation, and xenograft. We studied miRNA expression profile in H1650 and HCC827 CD133+ CD34 cells with microarray analysis. We detected proliferation, migration, and invasion with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, scratch test, and Transwell chamber invasion assay, respectively. Results: CD133 and CD34 are CSC markers in H1650. We demonstrated that H1650 CD133+ CD34 cells have CSC characteristics and found that miR-27a was highly expressed in H1650 CD133+ CD34 cells. In addition, we showed that miR-27a regulates proliferation, migration, and invasion in H1650 cell line and demonstrated that miR-27a expression was positively related to epidermal growth factor receptor in NSCLC cell lines. Conclusions: CD133+ CD34 is a CSC marker in H1650. miR-27a is highly expressed in H1650 CSCs and regulates cancer development in H1650. miR-27a may be a potential target for NSCLC therapy.
  1,181 52 -
Detection of urinary trace elements and pattern recognition analysis in patients with renal cell carcinoma by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
Jiaxin Zheng, Bin Chen, Rongfu Liu, Huiqiang Wang, Jinchun Xing, Wei Hang
December 2018, 14(12):1152-1157
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.204902  PMID:30539862
Objective: This study aims to observe the changes and diagnostic values of urinary trace elements in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: A total of 28 RCC patients that had been performed radical surgery for more than 3 years were included into this case–control study; meanwhile, thirty healthy volunteers without kidney diseases were set as the control group over the same period. The levels of various urinary trace elements in both groups were measured, and the results were performed the significance analysis and pattern recognition analysis using with partial least square discriminant analysis and Fisher analysis. Results: The significance analysis showed that compared with the control group, the case group exhibited significantly reduced levels of Mg (26.3 mg/L for the case group vs. 52.1 mg/L for the control group, P < 0.05), V (72.9 μg/L for the case group vs. 110.1 μg/L for the control group, P < 0.05), Mo (59.6 μg/L for the case group vs. 261.7 μg/L for the control group, P < 0.05), and Sn (4.5 μg/L for the case group vs. 27.3 μg/L for the control group, P < 0.05) while significantly increased Cd (25.0 μg/L for the case group vs. 15.5 μg/L for the control group, P < 0.05). The accuracy of the discriminant function established by the Fisher analysis was 91.4%. Conclusions: Patients with RCC exhibit differences in such urinary trace elements as Mg, V, Mo, Sn, and Cd with healthy populations, and the discriminant accuracy is high.
  1,179 52 -
Irinotecan plus cisplatin compared with etoposide plus cisplatin in patients with previously untreated extensive-stage small cell lung cancer: A meta-analysis
Zi-Li Liu, Bin Wang, Ji-Zhu Liu, Wei-Wei Liu
December 2018, 14(12):1076-1083
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.199387  PMID:30539849
Objective: To systematically review the effect and safety of irinotecan plus cisplatin (IP) compared with etoposide plus cisplatin (EP) in patients with previously untreated extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (E-SCLC). Materials and Methods: Databases including PubMed, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP, and WanFang Data were searched for the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about IP compared with EP in patients with previously untreated E-SCLC from the establishment to June 2016. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of included studies. Then meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK). Results: A total of 12 RCTs involving 2030 patients were finally included. Meta-analysis showed that compared with EP regimen, IP regimen significantly improved the 1- and 2-year survival rates of the patients with previously untreated E-SCLC (risk ratio [RR] = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.03–1.31], P = 0.02; RR = 1.79, 95% CI [1.22–2.61], P = 0.003, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between IP regimen and EP regimen in the objective response rate (ORR) (RR = 1.07, 95% CI [0.99–1.15], P = 0.10) and disease control rate (DCR) (RR = 1.03, 95% CI [0.96–1.10], P = 0.38). The incidence of Grade 3/4 leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia of IP regimen was sigificantly lower than EP regimen (all P < 0.05), the incidence of Grade 3/4 nausea/vomiting and diarrhea of IP regimen was sigificantly higher than EP regimen (all P < 0.05). Conclusion: IP regimen significantly improves the 1- and 2-year survival rates, but not significantly improves the ORR and DCR, compared with EP regimen in patients with previously untreated E-SCLC. IP regimen has less Grade 3 or 4 hematological adverse events. IP regimen is an alternative of EP regimen in patients with previously untreated E-SCLC.
  1,163 63 -
Evaluation of the effect of hesperidin on vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression in rat skin animal models following cobalt-60 gamma irradiation
Gholamhassan Haddadi, Akbar Abbaszadeh, Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Ali Okhovat, Ashkan Salajeghe, Zhila Ghorbani
December 2018, 14(12):1098-1104
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.202892  PMID:30539852
Introduction: Skin is highly prone to radiation damage. Radiation burn is defined as damage to the skin or other biological tissues induced by radiofrequency or ionizing radiation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a heparin-binded pro-angiogenic factor. Flavonoids belong to a family of polyphenol chemical compounds that are frequently present in fruits and vegetables. Hesperidin is an agent belonging to the flavonoid family. The aim of this study is to investigate whether hesperidin can affect the VEGF gene expression in rat skin following gamma irradiation or not. Materials and Methods: A total number of 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. First group: radiation group (n = 12), second group: radiation + hesperidin-treated group (n = 12), and third group: untreated control group (n = 12). The hesperidin administration dose was 100 mg/kg body weight. The rats received a 22 Gy single dose at a dose rate of about 0.3 Gy/min using a cobalt-60 external beam radiotherapy unit. The animals were euthanized 24 h postirradiation. VEGF gene expression data were analyzed using the equation 2–ΔΔCT, where ΔΔCT = (Threshold cycle [CT], of target gene – CT of housekeeping gene)treated group– (CT of target gene – CT of housekeeping gene)untreated control group. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene was used as a housekeeping gene. Results: VEGF gene in the radiation + hesperidin group overexpressed 25-fold relative to the control group. In addition, VEGF gene in the radiation group underexpressed 0.15-fold relative to the control group. When the three groups were compared relative to each other using the Kruskal–Wallis test, P < 0.001 was obtained. Based on the Mann–Whitney U-test, when all groups were compared to each in a binary model, P = 0.001 was achieved. These tests all showed statistically significant changes in VEGF gene expression. Conclusions: We can conclude that hesperidin is a potent angiogenic factor. Hesperidin as a radioprotector can initiate angiogenesis by VEGF gene induction. It may stimulate epithelialization, collagen deposition, and enhanced cellular proliferation. These changes can together accelerate wound healing, in particular, radiation-induced skin damage.
  1,103 102 -
Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 null genotypes and bladder cancer risk: A meta-analysis in a single ethnic group
Da-Ke Chen, Wei-Wen Huang, Lin-Jin Li, Qiang-Wei Pan, Wen-Shuo Bao
December 2018, 14(12):993-997
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.191067  PMID:30539835
Aim of Study: To further evaluate the influence of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) null genotypes on bladder cancer risk, we conducted a meta-analysis in the Chinese population. Materials and Methods: PubMed and Chinese databases were electronically searched through April 2016. Results: Nine studies were included for our meta-analysis, involving 1646 bladder cancer cases and 1938 controls. In general, our findings indicated that a significant association existed between GSTM1-null genotype and the risk of bladder cancer in the studied Chinese population (odds ratio = 1.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.36–1.79). However, no significant association between GSTT1 polymorphism and bladder cancer was found. After stratification of the subgroup analyses by source of controls and geographical areas, a substantially elevated risk was revealed between GSTM1-null genotype and bladder cancer in the population-based studies and those conducted in South China and North China. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis suggested that GSTM1-null genotype is associated with an increased bladder cancer risk in the Chinese individuals.
  1,125 63 -
Role of dalteparin sodium on the growth of cancer cells and tumor-associated angiogenesis in A549 human lung cancer cell line and grafted mouse model
Yan Rui, Dongsheng Wang, Danfeng Hu, Linian Huang
December 2018, 14(12):985-992
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.192765  PMID:30539834
Purpose: To investigate the effects of dalteparin sodium on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor (VEGFR), and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in A549 human lung cancer (LC) cell line and a human A549-grafted nude mouse model. Materials and Methods: A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line was divided into control group, treated using normal saline (NS); and dalteparin sodium groups, receiving 5, 15, 50, and 150 IU/ml of dalteparin sodium, respectively. Human A549-grafted nude mouse was induced through subcutaneous (SC) injection of A549 (5 × 106/0.2 ml) into the right armpit, and randomly assigned into control group (n = 6) receiving intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of NS, cisplatin (DDP) group (n = 6, 3 mg/kg DDP alone, i.p., for 3 days), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) group (n = 6) receiving SC injection of 1500 IU/kg dalteparin sodium for 35 days, and DDP plus LMWH group (n = 6, 3 mg/kg DDP, i.p., for 3 days, followed by SC injection of 1500 IU/kg dalteparin sodium for 35 days). Results: Significant difference was noted in the messenger RNA expression of VEGF, VEGFR, and HIF-1α after treating with heparin with a concentration of 15, 50, or 150 IU/ml in the A549 cell line at 24 and 48 h, respectively. In the human A549-grafted nude mouse model, a significant reduction was noted in the expression of VEGF, VEGFR, and HIF-1α in the tumor mass harvested from the mice receiving administration of dalteparin sodium plus DDP. Conclusion: Dalteparin sodium had the inhibitory effects on the growth of human LC A549 cells in vitro and A549 LC xenograft model, which could be enhanced when administrated together with DDP.
  1,118 62 -
Percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage combined with percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy for maintaining nutrition state in patients with advanced ampullary neoplasms
Yanbo Sun, Weiming Li, Dali Sun, Shumin Li, Qingwen Xu, Yijun Li, Yueying Lin, Yuxing Qi, Ting Yang, Kun Su, Yunyun Cen, Xiongzhi Chen, Pengyuan Xu
December 2018, 14(12):1158-1162
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.199788  PMID:30539863
Purpose: To investigate the role of percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage (PTCD) combined with percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (PEJ) in maintaining the nutrition state in patients with advanced ampullary neoplasms. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients who suffered from advanced ampullary neoplasms and could not tolerate internal drainage operation or biliary stent placement were enrolled. After PTCD, PEJ was implemented, and then the enteral nutrient solution + bile were instilled through PEJ tube for enteral nutrition support. Before and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after surgery, the body weight, bilirubin, liver function, nutritional status, and immunologic function indexes were detected and compared. Results: All patients had successfully completed PTCD combined with PEJ, and no serious complication occurred. The body mass index of the patients from 4 weeks after surgery was significantly higher than before (P < 0.05). From 2 weeks, both serum total bilirubin and direct bilirubin levels were significantly lower than before (P < 0.05). From 1 week, both alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower than before (P < 0.05); from 2 weeks, the level of gamma-glutamyl transferase was significantly lower than before (P < 0.05). From 1 week, the levels of albumin, transferrin, and prealbumin were significantly increased compared with before (P < 0.05), and serum CD3+ cell content, CD4+ cell content, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly improved compared with before (P < 0.05). Conclusion: PTCD combined with PEJ is a safe and effective method for maintaining nutrition state in patients with advanced ampullary neoplasms.
  1,081 62 -
Expression of programmed death-ligand 1 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α proteins in endometrial carcinoma
Ashraf Ishak Fawzy Tawadros, Mohamed Mohamed Mohamed Khalafalla
December 2018, 14(12):1063-1069
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.202891  PMID:30539847
Background: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) proteins mediate major alterations of tumor microenvironment including generation of immunosuppressive microenvironment and tumor hypoxia, respectively. These alterations play a crucial role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Aims: The present study was designed to investigate the correlation between the expression of PD-L1 and HIF-1α proteins and the clinicopathologic variables in endometrial carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Tumor tissue sections from 95 endometrial carcinomas were evaluated for PD-L1 and HIF-1α immunohistochemical protein expression. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests when appropriate. Two-sided P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: PD-L1 and HIF-1α expression were detected in 48.4% and 68.4% of endometrial carcinomas, respectively. PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.027). HIF-1α expression was significantly associated with tumor grade, depth of myometrial invasion, and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.014, 0.012, and 0.046, respectively). A significant positive correlation was detected between PD-L1 and HIF-1α immunoexpression (P = 0.015). Conclusions: PD-L1 and HIF-1α proteins are promising potential prognostic biomarkers in endometrial carcinomas since their overexpression is associated with clinicopathologic variables of advanced disease. A potential role of HIF-1α in upregulation of PD-L1 expression is suggested based on the finding of positive correlation between PD-L1 and HIF-1α expression in endometrial carcinoma. These findings point to a potential role of biomarkers inhibitors in controlling endometrial cancer progression.
  1,067 63 -
Gambogic acid-induced autophagy in nonsmall cell lung cancer NCI-H441 cells through a reactive oxygen species pathway
Lijun Ye, Jimei Zhou, Wei Zhao, Pengfei Jiao, Gaofei Ren, Shujun Wang
December 2018, 14(12):942-947
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.206866  PMID:30539827
Aim of the Study: Garcinia hanburyi is a traditional herbal medicine with activities of anti-inflammation and hemostasis used by people in South Asia. Gambogic acid (GA) is the main active component extracted from it, which has anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the current study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms of GA's effective anticancer activity. Materials and Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to measure cell proliferation. Apoptosis induced by GA was analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate were used to evaluate autophagy and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, respectively. Results: GA could significantly inhibit nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) NCI-H441 cell growth. In addition, GA induced NCI-H441 cells autophagy, confirmed by MDC staining, upregulation of Beclin 1 (initiation factor for autophagosome formation), and conversion of LC3 I to LC3 II (autophagosome marker). Moreover, generated ROS was induced by GA in NCI-H441 cells and the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine reversed GA-induced autophagy and restored the cell survival, which indicated GA-induced autophagy in NCI-H441 cells through an ROS-dependent pathway. In addition, in vivo results further indicated that GA significantly inhibited the growth of NCI-H441 xenografts. Conclusions: The results shed new light on the interaction between ROS generation and autophagy in NSCLC cells and provide theoretical support for the usage of GA in clinical treatment.
  1,029 87 -
Catechol-O-methyltransferase 158G/A polymorphism and endometriosis/adenomyosis susceptibility: A meta-analysis in the Chinese population
Yong-wei Li, Chun-xia Wang, Jian-she Chen, Lu Chen, Xiao-qian Zhang, Yue Hu, Xiao-bin Niu, Dong-xu Pei, Xin-wei Liu, Yong-yi Bi
December 2018, 14(12):980-984
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.188439  PMID:30539833
Purpose: An association between catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) 158G/A polymorphism and endometriosis/adenomyosis susceptibility has been reported in the previous studies, but the results were inconsistent. This study was conducted to explore this association in the Chinese population using meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biology Medicine were searched for all relevant studies published up to December 2015. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of the associations. Results: A total of 7 case–control studies including 782 cases and 700 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, COMT 158G/A polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with endometriosis and adenomyosis risk in the Chinese population (A vs. G, OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.02–1.42; AA vs. GG, OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.01–2.14; AA vs. GG + GA, OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 0.99–2.03; AA + GA vs. GG, OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.97–1.49). In subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity, source of controls and disease groups, the significant risk was found in Chinese not mentioned the ethnicity, in population-based studies and adenomyosis. Conclusions: COMT 158G/A polymorphism may contribute to the risk of endometriosis and adenomyosis in Chinese, particularly for adenomyosis.
  1,034 55 -
Identification of significant ego networks and pathways in rheumatoid arthritis
Wen-Zheng Zhou, Liao-Gang Miao, Hong Yuan
December 2018, 14(12):1024-1028
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.189250  PMID:30539840
Objective: The objective of this paper is to identify ego networks and pathways in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) based on EgoNet algorithm and pathway enrichment analysis. Materials and Methods: The ego networks were identified based on the EgoNet algorithm which was comprised four steps: inputting gene expression data and protein-protein interaction data, identifying ego genes based on topological features of genes in background network, collecting ego networks by conducting snowball sampling for each ego gene, and estimating statistical significance of ego networks utilizing permutation test. To further explore the gene compositions of significant ego networks, pathway enrichment analysis was performed for each of them to investigate ego pathways in the progression of RA. Results: We detected 9 ego genes from the background network, such as CREBBP, SMAD2, and YY1. Starting with each ego gene and ending with prediction accuracy dropped, a total of 9 ego networks were identified. Statistical analysis identified two significant ego networks (ego-networks 2 and 4). Ego-network 2 with ego gene SNW1 and ego-network 4 whose ego gene was YY1 both included 10 genes. The results of pathway enrichment analysis showed that signaling by NOTCH (P = 1.11E-07) and oncogene-induced senescence (P = 3.48E-04) were the two ego pathways for RA. Conclusion: Ego networks and pathways identified in this work might be potential therapeutic markers for RA treatment and give a hand for further studies of this disease.
  1,030 56 -
Gastric metastasis of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report and literature review
Long Peng, Kehan Yu, Yong Li, Weidong Xiao
December 2018, 14(12):1230-1232
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.199379  PMID:30539878
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with gastric metastasis is seldom reported. It is extremely easy to misdiagnose for primary gastric cancer with liver metastasis, especially gastric hepatoid adenocarcinoma. Here, we report a case of recurrent HCC with gastric metastasis in a 22-year-old man. He had a history of left side hepatic tumor local resection due to ruptured HCC 10 years ago. Computed tomography revealed tumors in the right liver and stomach. Endoscopy identified a massive protrusion-like malignant stromal tumor at the greater curvature of gastric body. Curative resection was performed, and HCC with gastric metastasis was diagnosed by histological and immunohistochemical findings. The patient received two times of chemotherapy and remained tumor free for 15 months. Previous studies and our experience suggested that surgical resection could significantly prolong the survival and improve patients' quality of life. A brief literature review was conducted to elucidate the differential diagnosis and treatment of HCC with gastric metastasis.
  982 91 -
Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with AZD9291
Sheng-ming Deng, Jian-an Huang, Yan-bin Chen
December 2018, 14(12):1227-1229
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.199380  PMID:30539877
AZD9291 is one of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Interstitial lung disease (ILD) induced by AZD9291 is very seldom. We provide a case of NSCLC treated with AZD9291 who developed ILD and died in order to improve the knowledge on AZD9291.
  996 70 -
Evaluation of electron dose calculations accuracy of a treatment planning system in radiotherapy of breast cancer with photon-electron technique
Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi, Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard, Bagher Farhood, Ashraf Farkhari, Courtney Knaup
December 2018, 14(12):1110-1116
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.199457  PMID:30539854
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of electron dose calculations of Prowess Panther treatment planning system (TPS) for abutting photon-electron (PE) technique. In this work, we have assessed the accuracy of electron dose calculations in a simulated internal mammary field because this field is irradiated with electron in PE technique. Materials and Methods: In this study, regions of in-field, under electron shield, and outside the internal mammary field were evaluated. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD-700) chips were used within RANDO phantom for dose measurement. Prowess Panther TPS was also applied for dose calculation. Finally, confidence limit values were obtained to quantify the TPS electron dose calculation accuracy of an internal mammary field. Results: The results show that for outside of field and under shield regions, Prowess Panther TPS underestimated the dose compared to the measured doses by TLD-700, whereas for in-field regions, the calculated doses by Prowess Panther TPS compared to the measured doses by TLD-700, for some points are overestimated and other points are underestimated. Finally, the confidence limit values were obtained for various regions of the internal mammary field. Confidence limits for in-field, outside of field, and under shield regions were 54.23, 108.19, and 80.51, respectively. Conclusions: It is concluded that the accuracy of electron dose calculations of Prowess Panther TPS is not adequate for internal mammary field treatment. Therefore, it is recommended that for fields with electron beams Prowess Panther TPS calculations should not be entirely relied upon.
  964 82 -
Survival and the prognosticators of peritoneal cytology-positive pancreatic cancer patients undergoing curative resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy
Toru Aoyama, Yosuke Atsumi, Keisuke Kazama, Masaaki Murakawa, Manabu Shiozawa, Satoshi Kobayashi, Makoto Ueno, Manabu Morimoto, Norio Yukawa, Takashi Oshima, Takaki Yoshikawa, Yasushi Rino, Munetaka Masuda, Soichiro Morinaga
December 2018, 14(12):1129-1134
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.194927  PMID:30539858
Background: The factors associated with the survival and prognosis of peritoneal cytology (CY)-positive pancreatic cancer patients who undergo curative resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy have not been established. Patients and Methods: Both overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were examined in 23 peritoneal CY-positive pancreatic cancer patients who underwent curative resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy between 2005 and 2015. Results: When the length of OS was evaluated using a log-rank test, significant differences were observed in the number of metastatic lymph nodes. In addition, univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that the number of metastatic lymph nodes was a significant independent risk factor for OS and a marginally significant risk factor for RFS. The 3-year OS rate was 20.2% in patients with ≤8 metastatic lymph nodes, and it was 0% in those with the ≥9 metastatic lymph nodes (P = 0.017). The 3-year RFS rate was 6.3% in patients with ≤8 metastatic lymph nodes, whereas it was 0% in those with ≥9 metastatic lymph nodes (P = 0.062). Conclusions: The number of metastatic lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor for OS and RFS in peritoneal CY-positive pancreatic cancer patients who underwent curative resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. To improve the survival of these patients, it is necessary to establish optimal treatments.
  976 48 -
Identification of disrupted pathways associated with colon cancer based on combining protein–protein interactions and pathway data
Jiqun He, Weidong Liu
December 2018, 14(12):998-1003
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.191063  PMID:30539836
Objective: The objective of this paper was to identify the disrupted pathways associated with colon cancer at a network level based on protein–protein interaction (PPI) network and pathway analysis. Materials and Methods: First of all, the Affymetrix microarray data of colon cancer, human PPIs relationships, and human pathways existed in the database were recruited and preprocessed. Second, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between colon cancer and normal controls were identified. In the following, an objective PPI network was constructed using these DEGs. Ultimately, we calculated the disrupted pathways based on the intersection between pathway network and the objective network. Meanwhile, the topological centrality (degree) analysis was performed to explore the hub genes in the objective network. Results: In our study, an objective network consisted of 2288 PPI pairs by 574 DEGs were constructed. In addition, ten disrupted pathways whose number of intersection was not <22 between objective network and each pathway, as well as P < 0.05, was selected. Furthermore, a total of 22 hub genes in the objective network were selected based on degree >30. Last, seven out of the above ten pathways were validated to involve in the intersections of pathway network and objective network. Moreover, cell cycle was the most significant disrupted pathway. Conclusions: We successfully identified several biologically disrupted pathways, and these pathways might be potential biomarkers in detection and treatment for colon cancer.
  940 62 -
Comparisons of skin toxicity in patients with extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma after treatment with intensity-modulated radiotherapy and conventional radiotherapy
Yue Gu, Hui Yu, Xiaoxiao Zuo, Qinchen Cao, Tiansong Liang, Yongxia Ren, Hongyao Yang, Daoke Yang
December 2018, 14(12):975-979
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.192791  PMID:30539832
Background: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been more widely used in extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) because it can maximally improve the local control rate of tumor and reduce the radiation dose received by surrounding normal tissues. However, there has been no consensus on whether IMRT can help to lower the toxic and adverse reactions caused by radiation therapy. The aim of this study is to compare skin toxicity caused by IMRT and conventional radiotherapy in Stage I–II NKTCL. Methods: A total of 93 patients with Stage I–II NKTCL, nasal-type arising in the nasal cavity were consecutively treated using curative radiotherapy between April 2005 and August 2014. These patients received radiotherapy without chemotherapy. Definitive radiotherapy was conducted using conventional radiotherapy in 33 patients and IMRT in the other sixty patients with a regional field and a total dose of 50 Gy. Dosimetric parameters of radiation treatment plans and skin toxicity were analyzed and compared between conventional radiotherapy and IMRT. Results: From the dosimetric analysis, IMRT demonstrated significantly improved dose coverage and homogeneity than conventional radiotherapy. Meanwhile, the Grade 1, 2, and 3 skin toxicity incidences in conventional radiotherapy group were 42.4%, 39.4%, and 18.2%, and in IMRT group were 25.0%, 31.7%, and 43.3%, respectively. Our data suggested that the severity of skin toxicity in IMRT group was statistically higher than that in conventional radiotherapy group. Conclusions: IMRT provided improved dose coverage than conventional radiotherapy. However, IMRT failed to lower patients' risks for skin toxicity and may have the potential to increase skin toxicity.
  911 73 -
A prospective longitudinal evaluation of cognition and depression in postoperative patients with high-grade glioma following radiotherapy and chemotherapy
Qiang Wang, Fei Qi, Xiaopeng Song, Jie Di, Licheng Zhang, Yuan Zhou, Xin Lu, Jin Chang, Yonghua Yu
December 2018, 14(12):1048-1051
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.199431  PMID:30539844
Aim of Study: The survival rate in high-grade glioma (HGG) patients receiving a combined regimen of radiotherapy (RT) and temozolomide after tumor resection was increased. However, cognitive deficits and depression after the treatments challenge the treatments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cognition and depression in postoperative patients with HGG following RT and chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Six-five eligible patients were included in the study. Cognition and depression were examined at baseline (after surgery before RT), every 3 months during follow-up using mini–mental state examination and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), respectively. Results: Our results showed that cognition was not significantly affected after treatments (F = 1.19, P = 0.32). However, significant differences between baseline and follow-ups were found regarding SDS scores (F = 3.26, P =0.0.01). SDS score at the 3rd month was significantly higher than that at baseline (t = −3.16, P = 0.002). Conclusion: This prospective study showed that although cognition was not significantly affected, the treatment caused depression, particularly at the 3rd month. These data implicated that interventions should be designed to deal with depression in the 3rd month.
  925 56 -
Cutaneous metastasis in prostate cancer: Two cases with similar clinical findings
Ayşe Kavak, Murat Yılmaz, Haydar Kamil Çam, Volkan Tuğcu, Hülya Albayrak, Damlanur Sakız, Ümran Yıldırım
December 2018, 14(12):1213-1216
DOI:10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_917_16  PMID:30539873
Cutaneous metastasis of prostate cancer is rare. Lesions in this type of skin metastasis are usually seen as suprapubic nodules. Here, we presented two cases with skin metastases of prostate cancer characterized by grouped cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules.
  861 81 -
Association of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha gene polymorphism with renal cell carcinoma susceptibility
Lei Huang, Mei-qin Li, Chao Ou, Wen-cheng Huang, Jin-feng Liu, Hao Huang
December 2018, 14(12):1105-1109
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.199456  PMID:30539853
Aim of Study: Association between hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) gene polymorphism and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) susceptibility is still being conflicting. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the relationship between HIF-1α C1772T (rs11549465)/G1790A (rs11549467) gene polymorphism and RCC risk. Materials and Methods: Association studies were identified from the databases of PubMed and CBM-disc (China Biological Medicine Database) as of July 1, 2015, and eligible investigations were included and synthesized using meta-analysis method. Results: Five investigations were identified, and the meta-analysis was conducted to assess the association between HIF-1α gene polymorphism and RCC risk. There was a marked association between HIF-1α C1772T TT genotype and RCC susceptibility, and the association between HIF-1α C1772T T allele/CC genotype and RCC risk was not found in overall populations (T: odds ratios [OR] =1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70–1.54, P = 0.84; TT: OR = 0.13, 95% CI: 1.60–2.34, P = 0.01; CC: OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.68–2.07, P = 0.55). Furthermore, a marked association between HIF-1α G1790A AA genotype and RCC susceptibility was found, and the association between HIF-1α G1790A A allele/GG genotype and RCC risk was not found in overall populations (A: OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 0.60–3.92, P = 0.38; AA: OR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.38–6.92, P = 0.006; GG: OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.20–2.03, P = 0.44). Conclusion: HIF-1α C1772T TT genotype and HIF-1α G1790A AA genotype were associated with RCC susceptibility. However, more investigations are required to further clarify the association.
  881 53 -
Association of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 + 49A/G gene polymorphism with hepatocellular carcinoma risk in Chinese
Cunchuan Wang, Weimin Liu, Lei Zhao, Zhiyong Dong
December 2018, 14(12):1117-1120
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.203604  PMID:30539855
Aim of Study: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common cause of cancer-associated mortalities worldwide, is a complex polygenic disease, and its development is dependent on many genetic factors. Hepatitis B virus infection, also called chronic hepatitis B (CHB), is the leading cause of HCC. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) +49A/G and HCC risk. Materials and Methods: The association studies were recruited from PubMed and China Biological Medicine Database, and eligible studies were included and synthesized using meta-analysis method. Results: Four reports were included into this meta-analysis for the association of CTLA4 A/G gene polymorphism and HCC risk, and all the included studies were from Chinese. The association between CTLA4 A/G gene polymorphism and HCC risk was found in this meta-analysis (G allele: odds ratio [OR] =1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.44, P = 0.02; GG genotype: OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.03–1.44, P = 0.02; AA genotype: OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.10–1.69, P = 0.004). Furthermore, G allele and GG genotype were associated with the CHB patients developing into HCC (G allele: OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.66–0.98, P = 0.03; GG genotype: OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57–0.99, P = 0.04). Conclusion: CTLA4 A/G gene polymorphism was associated with HCC risk and CTLA4 G allele/GG genotype is associated with CHB patients developing into HCC in Chinese.
  837 61 -
Determination of core pathways for oral squamous cell carcinoma via the method of attract
Guoying Zhang, Mingxing Bi, Shaolai Li, Qingchen Wang, Dong Teng
December 2018, 14(12):1029-1034
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.206868  PMID:30539841
Objective: We expected to demonstrate a practical framework for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) candidate biomarker analysis at the pathway level based on the attract method, so as to give great insights to reveal the pathological mechanism underlying this disease at its early stage. Methods: First, gene expression profile of OSCC was recruited and preprocessed. Then, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was conducted. Next, attract method, an approach that begins its analysis from the “foundation knowledge sets” to discriminate the cell-phenotypes by those well-annotated gene-sets, then expands the syn-expression groups via decomposing each significant pathway into correlated subsets and extends the analysis to the entire expression was applied to identify core pathways. Finally, gene ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis was performed on each of the correlated set groups to discover any potentially shared biological themes. Results: A total of 226 pathways were obtained. Then, 39 core KEGG pathways was identified via attract. After removing the uninformative genes, a total of 1, 2, and 3 clusters were separately identified for the three discriminative pathways extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, and cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) pathway based on the correlation coefficient < 0.85. GO functional enrichment analysis for the correlated partners groups indicated that there were 40, 11, 78 significant GO terms for ECM-receptor interaction, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, and CAMs pathway, respectively. Conclusions: We predict that pathways such as ECM-receptor interaction, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, and CAMs may play significant roles in OSCC and targeting these pathways may provide an effective avenue to combat the complicated illness.
  836 50 -
Network strategy to investigate differential pathways in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Li-Hong Han, Xiao-Yan Fan, Hong Guo, Wei Wei, Mao-Meng Chen, Shu-Fang Yan
December 2018, 14(12):1057-1062
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.199453  PMID:30539846
Objective: The objective of this paper was to investigate differential pathways in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) based on pathway network analysis. Materials and Methods: To achieve this goal, first, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between SALS and normal controls were identified, and a target network was defined as DEGs correlated interactions from the search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins (STRING). Second, topological centrality analysis was conducted on the target network to identify hub genes and hub network. Third, pathway network was constructed by taking intersections of Reactome database and STRING protein-protein interaction network. Finally, based on extracting the common interactions between target network, hub network and pathway network, we built randomized network, performed randomization test, and denoted differential pathways and hub differential pathways with P < 0.05. Results: There were 485 DEGs and 627 interactions in the target network. The pathway network was comprised 117,370 interactions. What was more, we found that 217 pathways had intersections with the target network. By accessing randomization test and removing the intersected count <10, 21 differential pathways with P values were nearly to be 0 were obtained, of which 6 rightly were the hub differential pathways, such as gene expression, mRNA Splicing, and mRNA splicing-major pathway. Conclusion: We have investigated 217 differential pathways and 21 significant differential pathways between SALS and normal controls based on network strategy. The findings might provide potential biomarkers for detection and therapy of SALS clinically and give great insights to reveal molecular mechanism underlying this disease. However, how these pathways cooperated with each other is still not clear, and future study should focus on this aspect.
  811 46 -
Tracking significant modules and key genes for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma based on differential modules
Meng-Li Zheng, Nai-Kang Zhou, Cheng-Hua Luo
December 2018, 14(12):1135-1140
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.189251  PMID:30539859
Background: The exact molecular mechanism of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still unknown, and the prognosis of ESCC has not been significantly improved. Objective: To understand the molecular mechanism of ESCC, differential modules (DMs) and key genes were identified through conducting analysis on the differential co-expression network (DCN) based on the gene expression profiles of ESCC and protein–protein interaction (PPI) data. Materials and Methods: First, gene expression profiles of ESCC and PPI data recruiting and preprocessing were conducted; then, a DCN was constructed based on the gene co-expression and gene differential expression in ESCC; in the following, candidate DMs were mined from DCN through a systemic module searching strategy, and significance analysis was performed on candidate DMs to identify DMs; moreover, significant genes contained in the DMs were analyzed to identify the underlying biomarkers for ESCC. Finally, pathway enrichment analysis was conducted to disclose the function of these DMs. Results: A total of 10,975 genes were obtained after comprehensively preprocessing on the gene expression profiles and PPI data. Then, a DCN with 915 nodes (1164 interactions) was built, and 45 seed genes were identified. In the following, four DMs that separately enriched in phenylalanine metabolism, nicotine addiction, phenylalanine metabolism, and B-cell receptor signaling pathway were identified, where module 1 and module 3 were all enriched in phenylalanine metabolism pathway. Furthermore, the most significant seed gene myeloperoxidase (MPO) was contained in all of the DMs. Conclusions: In this study, we successfully identified 4 DMs, three significant pathways, and a key gene MPO in ESCC, which might play key roles during the occurrence and development of ESCC and could be chosen as good indicators and therapeutic schedule for ESCC.
  806 50 -
Concurrent computed tomography-guided radioactive iodine-125 seeds percutaneous interstitial implantation and chemotherapy for treatment of cervical lymph node metastases
Zhaodong Li, Xiangguo Wang, Kexia Fang, Jian Shi, Xiangjie Qi, Runming Sun
December 2018, 14(12):1163-1169
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.202896  PMID:30539864
Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of concurrent computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous interstitial implantation of iodine-125 (125I) seeds and chemotherapy on cervical lymph nodes metastasis. Methods: The prospective randomized study included 82 cases with cervical lymph nodes metastasis who were admitted to our hospital from January 2010 to June 2012. All the subjects were randomly divided into the concurrent 125I implantation and chemotherapy group (n = 48) and chemotherapy-only group (n = 34) according to the treatment strategy. The concurrent 125I implantation and chemotherapy group was treated with CT-guided 125I seeds implantation and routine chemotherapy. The routine chemotherapy included paclitaxel and cisplatin. Patients were followed up for 6 months. Results: In the concurrent 125I implantation and chemotherapy group, overall response rate (complete response [CR] + partial response [PR]) was 82.61% and 85.51% at 2 and 6 months posttreatment, respectively. The longest diameter of CR and PR lymph nodes was markedly decreased after treatment (P < 0.05). In the chemotherapy-only group, overall response rate was 22.45% and 10.20% at 2 and 6 months posttreatment, respectively. The number of patients with moderate to severe pain was much less in concurrent 125I implantation and chemotherapy group than that of chemotherapy-only group (4.17% vs. 17.64%; P < 0.05) at 6-month posttreatment. No treatment-related death or severe complication was reported in the two groups. Conclusion: Concurrent CT-guided 125I seeds implantation and chemotherapy is superior to routine chemotherapy in efficacy, safety, and pain relief in patients with cervical lymph nodes metastasis.
  801 55 -
An updated meta-analysis for association of glutathione S-transferase P1 gene polymorphism with the susceptibility of lung cancer
Wen-Zhou Liu, Yu Sun, Xu Feng, Xiao-Han Bi, Tao Liu, Hua-Fu Zhou
December 2018, 14(12):1084-1090
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.199455  PMID:30539850
Aim of Study: The conclusions on the association between glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) gene polymorphism and lung cancer risk are still debated. This meta-analysis was performed to update the association between GSTP1 and the risk of lung cancer. Materials and Methods: The association investigations were identified from PubMed and Cochrane Library, and eligible studies were included and synthesized using meta-analysis method. Results: Fifty reports were included into this meta-analysis for the association of GSTP1 A/G gene polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility. The association between GSTPI G allele/GG genotype and lung cancer risk was found in this meta-analysis (G allele: odds ratio [OR] = 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.14, P = 0.006; GG genotype: OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.00–1.18, P = 0.04). However, the AA genotype was not associated with the susceptibility of lung cancer. Conclusion: GSTP1 G allele/GG genotype is associated with the lung cancer susceptibility.
  791 59 -
Ganodermanontriol inhibits expression of special AT rich sequence binding protein 1 gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma
Chengkai Xu, Hanbin Guo, Danli Kong, Dong Pang, Yuanlin Ding
December 2018, 14(12):964-968
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.203597  PMID:30539830
Context: The metastasis of liver cancer is a major cause of clinical treatment failure, restrain, and control the cancer metastasis is the major strategy of the treatment and prevention of the disease. Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1) gene was overexpressed in many malignant tumors and considered as a potential target of anticancer drug. This study investigated the mechanism how ganodermanontriol effect the expression of SATB1 and thus inhibits the growth and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aims: This study explored mainly on the mechanism how ganodermanontriol affects the expression of SATB1 and inhibits proliferation of tumor on human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Settings and Design: The cancer cells were treated with ganodermanontriol. The status of the cells was detected by different methods. The mechanism was checked by various methods. Materials and Methods: In HepG2 cancer cells treated with various concentrations of ganodermanontriol, the cell proliferation of was detected by MTT assay, cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry; the mRNA of SATB1, Bcl-2, Bax were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the protein level of SATB1, Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase 3 were analyzed by Western blot. Statistical Analysis Used: Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation. The data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 software (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and GraphPad Prism software (GraphPad Software, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA). A one-way analysis of variance test was used to compare the differences among groups. Results: This study showed that ganodermanontriol could significantly reduce the expression level of SATB1. Conclusion: Therefore, downregulate the cascade effect caused by the expression level of Bcl-2 in HCC HepG2 cells.
  796 46 -
Meta-analysis of the relationship between excision repair cross-complementing Group 5 rs17655 gene polymorphism and head and neck cancer susceptibility
Tao Li, Huahuang Ling, Yaoyong Lu, Xiangcheng Wu, Maode Cai, Binguang Su, Ying Zou
December 2018, 14(12):1041-1047
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.202888  PMID:30539843
Background: Published studies have evaluated the association between excision repair cross-complementing Group 5 (ERCC5) rs17655 polymorphism and head and neck cancer (HNC) susceptibility. However, these studies showed inconsistent results. Aims: The aim of this study was to get a more comprehensive estimation of this association. Materials and Methods: Multiple databases were searched for the genetic association on the ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism and HNC risk. Ten studies with a total of 3922 cases and 5871 controls were finally identified to be eligible studies in this meta-analysis. Odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals was used to assess the strength of association. Results: Overall, this meta-analysis showed that there was no association between ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism and HNC risk under all five genetic models. Further, no significant associations between the ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism and HNC risk were found under the five genetic models in subgroup analyses based on the source of control. However, in stratified analyses by ethnicity, a significant association was found under the homozygous and recessive models in European. Conclusions: Our investigations demonstrate that genotypes for the ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism may be not associated with overall cancer risk. In a subgroup meta-analysis, the results suggest that the ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism is probably associated with HNC risk in European, but the results should be interpreted with caution for the low number of studies.
  790 49 -
Association of X-ray cross-complementing group 3 Thr241Met gene polymorphism with osteosarcoma risk and its development and prognosis
Yanwei Wang, Guanliang Wang, Zhiyong Dong
December 2018, 14(12):1178-1182
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.199435  PMID:30539867
Aim of Study: The relationship between X-ray cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) Thr241Met gene polymorphism and osteosarcoma risk and its development and prognosis is still debated. This meta-analysis was performed to assess these associations. Materials and Methods: The association studies were identified from PubMed, and eligible reports were included and calculated using meta-analysis method. Results: Interestingly, all the included studies were from Asian population. The meta-analysis indicated that XRCC3 Thr241Met gene polymorphism was associated with osteosarcoma risk (T allele: Odds ratio [OR] =1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25–1.98, P = 0.0001; TT genotype: OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.40-3.57, P = 0.0008; CC genotype: OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.54–0.87, P = 0.002). However, XRCC3 Thr241Met CC genotype was not associated with Enneking stage, tumor location, and tumor metastasis. Conclusion: XRCC3 Thr241Met gene polymorphism was associated with osteosarcoma risk, but XRCC3 Thr241Met CC genotype was not associated with Enneking stage, tumor location, and tumor metastasis.
  770 54 -
Identification of differentiated functional modules in papillary thyroid carcinoma by analyzing differential networks
Chunxiao Yang, Yingluan Wang
December 2018, 14(12):969-974
DOI:10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_730_16  PMID:30539831
Purpose: The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has dramatically increased over the past two decades. This study aimed to investigate the disparity of gene expression between PTC and normal tissues. Materials and Methods: Gene chip data of E-GEOD-33630 and E-GEOD-60542 were acquired and downloaded from European Bioinformatics Institute Part of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory website. E-GEOD-33630 data contained 94 test samples (49 PTC and 45 normal tissues), and E-GEOD-60542 data contained 63 test samples (33 PTC and thirty normal tissues). The two sets of data were analyzed by screening differential co-expression network (DCN) and identifying M-differential module. Results: Three differential modules were gained after statistical comparison between the PTC and normal tissues (P < 0.05). Short coiled-coil protein (SCOC) gene was as the seed gene of module 1, which contained 7 nodes and 9 edges. Moreover, SYPL1 was the seed gene of module 2 with 10 nodes and 16 edges. THAP1 was the seed gene of module 3 that contained 9 nodes and 12 edges. Conclusion: Analysis and statistical comparison of the gene chip can effectively screen out differential expression genes between the PTC and normal tissues. Based on a large number of samples and gene chip detection, three seed genes of SCOC, SYPL1, and THAP1 are determined. These data provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of PTC. Significant changes in the expression levels between PTC and normal tissues suggest that SCOC, SYPL1, or THAP1 may play a vital role in the incidence and development of PTC, which serve as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of PTC.
  749 41 -
Two subsequent metachronous diseases: Granuloma annulare and colon adenocarcinoma
Hatice Ataş, Fatma Aksoy Khurami, Müzeyyen Gönül, Murat Alper
December 2018, 14(12):1247-1248
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.191068  PMID:30539883
  707 44 -
Overexpression of forkhead box M1 is associated poor survival in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer
Bo Liu, Fang Su, Ronghua Lin, Haifeng Teng, Yuanrong Ju
December 2018, 14(12):1121-1123
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.203605  PMID:30539856
Aims: The association between forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) and survival of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been extensively investigated. However, the results were conflicted and inconclusive. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to precisely estimate the association between FOXM1 and survival of NSCLC. Materials and Methods: Studies were searched using the PubMed and EMBASE. The strength of the association was calculated with the hazard ratios (HRs) and respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Result of this meta-analysis showed that high expression of FOXM1 was significantly associated with shorter overall survival (OS) of NSCLC (HR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.45–2.29). In the stratified analysis by country, we found that the expression of FOXM1 was significantly associated with shorter OS in Chinese NSCLC patients (HR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.45–2.29). In addition, high expression of FOXM1 decreased the OS in patients with surgery (HR = 1.88; 95% CI 1.37–2.58). Furthermore, the results were still positive in both large sample size studies and small sample size studies. Conclusions: This meta-analysis showed that overexpression of FOXM1 might be associated with shorter OS of NSCLC patients.
  688 37 -
Multiple intercostal neurilemmomas in a Chinese woman
Wen-Kui Sun, Wen Yang, Chen-Hui Ma, Xin-Wu Xiao, Yi Shi, Yong Song
December 2018, 14(12):1220-1222
DOI:10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_540_16  PMID:30539875
Neurilemmomas are rare tumors of neural crest cell origin that occur most commonly in the head and neck region. Intercostal neurilemmomas are extremely rare and are mostly seen as solitary tumors in the posterior mediastinum. Only one case report of multiple intercostal neurilemmomas has been documented previously. In this article, we report a case of multiple intercostal neurilemmomas in a 54-year-old woman who had initially presented with progressive dull left chest pain over a 1-year period. A computed tomography scan revealed three tumors in the left thoracic cavity which were distributed as a string of beads along the third intercostal nerve. Histological and immunohistochemical testing confirmed a diagnosis of neurilemmomas. The patient underwent successful radical excision of the tumors through a thoracotomy approach, and her postoperative course was uneventful. Following the operation, she had no evidence of recurrences.
  677 38 -
Combinatorial effect of curcumin and tumor necrosis factor-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in induction of apoptosis via inhibition of nuclear factor kappa activity and enhancement of caspase-3 activity in chronic myeloid cells: An In-vitro study
Bushra Iqbal, Archna Ghildiyal, Shraddha Singh, Sahabjada Siddiqui, Pratibha Kumari, M Arshad, AA Mahdi
December 2018, 14(12):1193-1200
DOI:10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_348_18  PMID:30539870
Background: Nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells) expression and its regulation is a key role in the development of number of malignancies, as NFkB mediates the balance between cell death and its survival. Therefore, NFkB regulation constitutes an attractive target to overcome the resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in anticancer therapy. Curcumin, as a chemopreventive agent, has a potential role in inhibiting cell growth in a variety of malignancies. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of curcumin along with tumor necrosis factor-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in KCL-22 myeloid cells along with an investigation of the mechanism by which both the agents exert their effects. Materials and Methods: KCL-22 cells were exposed to different doses of curcumin and TRAIL alone and in combination. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, caspase activity by fluorescent method, protein expression by western Blot, and NFkB activity by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, respectively. Results: Cell viability assay revealed that when both the agents, curcumin and TRAIL, were used together, there was reduced cell viability in dose- and time-dependent manner as compared to each agent alone. Curcumin and TRAIL enhanced the caspase-3 activity as compared to caspase-8 and caspase-9. Both the agents induced apoptosis in KCL-22 cells by suppressing the IκB kinase and NFkB activity. Conclusion: Our results conclude that curcumin and TRAIL effectively induce the apoptosis through the inhibition of NFkB activity and by enhancing the caspase-3 activity. Thus, curcumin may prove as a potent inhibitor of NFkB by representing its role in cancer pathogenesis, especially in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.
  573 70 -
Autophagy facilitates anticancer effect of 5-fluorouracil in HCT-116 cells
Jing-wen Yang, Qing-huai Zhang, Tong Liu
December 2018, 14(12):1141-1147
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.204898  PMID:30539860
Aim of Study: The roles of autophagy performed in chemotherapy-induced cell death or proliferation inhibition were still in debate. In this study, we aimed to disclose the function of autophagy in chemotherapy of HCT-116 colon cells. Materials and Methods: Pharmacological and genetic methods were applied to induce and inhibit autophagy and elucidate the roles of autophagy performed in chemotherapy-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis. Autophagy was assessed by microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) expression and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining. Results: After treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), HCT-116 cells showed typical autophagy as stained by MDC. Autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine [3-MA]) or inducer (rapamycin) was applied in combination with 5-FU, respectively. As evidenced by our data, 3-MA inhibited while rapamycin facilitated 5-FU-induced apoptosis and proliferation inhibition of HCT-116 cells. Consistently, 3-MA inhibited, while rapamycin facilitated 5-FU-induced expressions of Beclin1 and LC3B. Moreover, 3-MA inhibited while rapamycin facilitated 5-FU-induced p53 protein expression. Using genetic method, Beclin1 overexpression increased while Beclin1 knockdown decreased 5-FU-induced cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis. Especially, Beclin1 overexpression increased while Beclin1 knockdown decreased 5-FU-induced p53 expression. Conclusion: Our study provides both of pharmacological and genetic evidence to support that autophagy facilitates anticancer effect of the chemotherapeutic agent. The associated application of autophagy inducer with 5-FU would be beneficial for the chemotherapy in HCT-116 cancer cells.
  472 28 -
Endostar continuous intravenous infusion combined with S-1 and oxaliplatin chemotherapy could be effective in treating liver metastasis from gastric cancer
Honglan Yang, Yanmin Sui, Xingjun Guo, Xiaojing Tan, Yan Li, Minglin Wang
December 2018, 14(12):1148-1151
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.204880  PMID:30539861
Objective: Endostar is a new vascular epithelial inhibitor, which is reported to be effective in treating liver metastasis from gastric cancer. However, the optimal therapeutic regimen of Endostar remains unclear. Thus, our study aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of Endostar continuous intravenous infusion combined with S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) chemotherapy in treating such patients. Patients and Methods: A total of sixty patients with liver metastasis from gastric cancer admitted in our department were enrolled. The experimental group (n = 30) was treated with Endostar continuous intravenous infusion combined with SOX regimen chemotherapy, and the control group (n = 30) received SOX regimen chemotherapy alone. All patients received at least two cycles of treatment. The objective effective rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), and adverse reactions were recorded and compared. Results: The ORR of the experimental group and control group was 63.3% and 43.3% (P = 0.046), respectively. The DCR of the experimental group and the control group was 86.7% and 73.3% (P = 0.034). The median PFS in the experimental group was longer than that in the control group (15.3 months vs. 12 months). There was no significant difference in the incidence of common adverse reactions such as gastrointestinal reaction, bone marrow suppression, and cardiac toxicity between the two groups. No death was observed in the study period. Conclusion: Continuous infusion of Endostar combined with SOX chemotherapy could be recommended for the treatment of liver metastasis from gastric cancer due to its high effective rate, and Endostar did not increase the incidence of adverse reactions.
  461 31 -
The prognostic role of thyroid transcription factor-1 in lung adenocarcinoma
Esin Oktay, Utku Oflazoglu, Yelda Varol, Ozgur Tanriverdi, Necla Mermur, Hayri Ustun Arda, Lutfiye Demir, Ozge Keskin, Tural Ahmadli, Isil Somali, Ilhan Oztop, Nezih Meydan
December 2018, 14(12):1201-1208
DOI:10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_1404_16  PMID:30539871
Aims: In this study, we investigated the expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) in lung adenocarcinoma patients' samples and analyzed the association of TTF-1 with clinicopathological parameters, prognosis, and treatment options in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Subjects and Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 200 patients who were histologically confirmed lung adenocarcinoma with Stage I-IV disease, between 2008 and 2015 years. The cytological archive of these hospitals' Pathology Department was searched. The available slides and the clinical information were reviewed and correlated. All analyses were conducted by SPSS version 15.0 statistical software. Results: Sixty-five (32.5%) of the patients showed TTF-1 negativity and 135 (67.5%) of them showed TTF-1 positivity. The median survival for TTF-1 positive and negative patients was 19.6 and 12.2 months, respectively. We did not find any statistical significance in-between the parameters in terms of the survival data. In TTF-1-negative group, the survival time of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation positive (P = 0.049), cytokeratin 7 (CK7) positive (P = 0.009) patients and those who had received curative radiotherapy (P = 0.028) was significantly better as compared to TTF-1-positive group. We also analyzed the relation between TTF-1 and survival outcome or chemotherapy selection in Stage IV disease. We could not identify any correlation between TTF-1 and survival outcome or treatment selection. Conclusions: This study suggests that TTF-1 is not a favorable prognostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma patients. The prognostic role of CK7 and relationship between TFF-1 expression in lung adenocarcinoma and predictive role of TTF-1 expression for the selection of first-line treatment in Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma should be validated in prospective and randomized studies.
  324 35 -
Influence of pharmorubicin on the left ventricular ejection fraction of patients with breast cancer: A mechanism study
Hu Liu, Ming-rui Xie, Hui Gao, Jian Li
December 2018, 14(12):1183-1187
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.202230  PMID:30539868
Aims: Breast cancer is a great public health problem. It remains unclear how pharmorubicin induces cardiac dysfunction in patients with breast cancer. Our study was aimed to explore the influence of pharmorubicin on the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) of patients with breast cancer and its potential mechanism. Materials and Methods: Patients with breast cancer were enrolled at the same hospital. Group I consisted of 135 samples, who were under treatment of pharmorubicin (200 mg/m2). Group II consisted of 144 samples, who were under treatment the of pharmorubicin (360 mg/m2). Group III was used as control group, which consists of 120 samples without treatment of pharmorubicin. Color Doppler ultrasonic inspection and measurement were performed to examine EF. Flow cytometry was performed to assess oxygen free radical level in hemocytes. Further combination therapy (N-acetylcysteine [NAC] + pharmorubicin) was provided for patients, and the same examinations were performed for the assessment of cardiac function and oxygen free radical level. Results: The ultrasound results showed that pharmorubicin treatment significantly jeopardized cardiac function, verified by decrease of both EF and fractional shortening (FS) (P < 0. 05). Moreover, such effect was dose-dependent. Oxygen free radical level was remarkably increased after pharmorubicin treatment (P < 0. 05), verified by flow cytometry. Adjunctive therapy of NAC decreased oxygen free radical level and improved cardiac function of patients with breast cancer, suggesting NAC ameliorated side effect of pharmorubicin treatment. Conclusions: Pharmorubicin treatment decreased EF and FS of patients with breast cancer through increasing oxygen free radical level in hemocytes. Adjunctive therapy of NAC could be a potential treatment to ameliorated side effect pharmorubicin treatment.
  224 25 -