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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2012| April-June  | Volume 8 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 26, 2012

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Downregulation of gene MDR1 by shRNA to reverse multidrug-resistance of ovarian cancer A2780 cells
Hongyi Zhang, Jing Wang, Kai Cai, Longwei Jiang, Dandan Zhou, Cuiping Yang, Junsong Chen, Dengyu Chen, Jun Dou
April-June 2012, 8(2):226-231
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98975  
Background: To explore the effects of downregulated multidrug-resistance P-glycoprotein (MDR1/ABCB1) and reversed multidrug-resistance in human A2780 ovarian cancer cells. Materials and Methods: Three shRNAs targeting the MDR1 gene were synthesized, and cloned into plasmid pSUPER-enhanced green fluorescent protein 1 (EGFP1). The formed pSUPER-EGFP1-MDR1-shRNAs were transfected into the A2780 cells, respectively, and the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot were used respectively to determine the MDR1 expression. The multidrug-resistance (MDR) of the MDR1-shRNAs transfected A2780 cells to chemotherapy drugs in vitro and in tumor-bearing nude mice were respectively evaluated. Results: The MDR1 shRNA expression resulted in decreased P-glycoprotein expression in the transfected A2780 cells. The MDR1-shRNA2 transfected cells showed that the sensitivities to chemotherapy drugs were higher than other shRNAs transfected A2780 cells, and that the formed tumor in mice grew slower than those of other mice after paclitaxel was injected into tumor-bearing nude mice. Conclusions: Our data demonstrates that the RNA interference could knock down gene MDR1 and reduce the P-glycoprotein expression, and partly reverse the MDR of A2780 cells in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that MDR-1 is an effective therapeutic target for human ovarian caner treatment.
  14 5,346 434
ANALYTICAL REPORTS
Methotrexate-induced acute toxic leukoencephalopathy
Parag R Salkade, Teh Aun Lim
April-June 2012, 8(2):292-296
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98993  
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common malignancies of childhood, which is treated with high doses of methotrexate (MTX), as it crosses the blood-brain barrier and can be administered intravenously and via intrathecal route to eradicate leukemic cells from central nervous system (CNS). Additionally, high doses of MTX not only prevent CNS recurrence but also hematologic relapses. Although, standard treatment protocol for ALL includes multimodality therapy, MTX is usually associated with neurotoxicity and affects periventricular deep white matter region. Methotrexate-induced 'acute toxic leukoencephalopathy' has varying clinical manifestations ranging from acute neurological deficit to seizures or encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is widely available and routinely used in clinical practice to identify acute stroke and also to distinguish acute stroke from non-stroke like conditions. We report a local teenage Chinese girl who developed 2 discrete episodes of left upper and lower limb weakness with left facial nerve paresis after receiving the 2 nd and 3 rd cycle of high dose of intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate, without having cranial irradiation. After each episode of her neurological deficit, the DW-MRI scan showed focal restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale. Her left sided focal neurological deficit and facial nerve paresis almost completely subsided on both these occasions within 3 days of symptom onset. Follow-up DW-MRI, after her neurological recovery, revealed almost complete resolution of previously noted restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale, while the lesion was not evident on concurrent T2W (T2-weighted) and FLAIR (Fluid-Attenuated Inversion recovery) sequences, nor showed any post contrast enhancement on post gadolinium enhanced T1W (T1-weighted) sequences. No residual neurological deficit or intellectual impairment was identified on clinical follow up over a 2 year period.
  7 14,953 1,300
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Cancer in Kashmir, India: Burden and pattern of disease
Malik Tariq Rasool, Mohammad Maqbool Lone, Mohd Lateef Wani, Fir Afroz, Saqib Zaffar, Malik Mohib-ul Haq
April-June 2012, 8(2):243-246
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98978  
Background: Incidence and prevalence of cancers differ in different regions of the world. To study the profile of different cancers in a particular cancer belt helps to know the exact incidence of different cancers in that region and their likely etiology. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of different cancers in Kashmir valley. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of patients registered at our Regional Cancer Centre (RCC) from Jan. 2009 to Dec. 2011 was carried out. All patients were histologically proven malignancies and were referred to the RCC for proper staging and treatment. All patients were properly evaluated and treated. Results: A total of 8648 patients were registered during this period. Esophageal cancer was the most common cancer followed by cancers of Lung, Stomach, Colorectal, Breast, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Gastro esophageal junction, Ovary, Skin, Gallbladder, Multiple Myeloma, Acute Lymphoid Leukemia, Urinary Bladder, Prostate and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Conclusion: Pattern of malignancies in valley is different from rest of the India. Gastrointestinal malignancies are the commonest malignancies in Kashmir valley followed by lung cancer in males and breast cancer in females.
  7 6,316 627
REVIEW ARTICLES
The pleiotropic effects and therapeutic potential of the hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors in malignancies: A comprehensive review
Simon Zeichner, Christos G Mihos, Orlando Santana
April-June 2012, 8(2):176-183
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98967  
The hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are used extensively in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. They have also demonstrated a benefit in a variety of other disease processes via actions known as pleiotropic effects. Our paper serves as a focused review of pre-clinical investigations and published clinical data regarding the pleiotropic effects of statins in malignancies and emphasizes the importance of randomized, placebo-controlled trials to further elucidate this interesting phenomenon.
  7 4,931 647
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of combination exercise training on metabolic syndrome parameters in postmenopausal women with breast cancer
Reza Nuri, Mohammad Reza Kordi, Mehrzad Moghaddasi, Nader Rahnama, Arsalan Damirchi, Farhad Rahmani-Nia, Hamid Emami
April-June 2012, 8(2):238-242
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98977  
Context: Studies have shown that physical activity or exercise training may decrease the metabolic syndrome. Aim: The aim of the present study is to clarify the effect of combination exercise training on metabolic syndrome parameters in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Setting and Design: Twenty nine postmenopausal women (58.27 ΁ 6.31 years) with breast cancer were divided into two groups randomly as experimental group (n=14) and control group (n=15). Materials and Methods: Subjects of experimental group were performed 15 weeks combination exercise training including walking (2 sessions per week) and resistance training (2 sessions per week that was different from walking days). Before and after 15 weeks, fasting insulin and glucose, insulin resistance, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) were calculated. Also, Vo2peak, rest heart rate (RHR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were measured in two groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values of two groups in pre and post test were compared by independent and paired t-test for all measurements (P≤ 0.05). Results: Significant differences were observed for VO2peak, RHR, BW, BMI, WHR, SBP, fasting insulin and glucose, HDL-C and TG between experimental and control groups after 15 weeks (P< 0.05). Conclusions: Combination exercise training can improve metabolic syndrome parameters in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.
  6 6,500 756
REVIEW ARTICLES
Pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis
Saba Khan, Laxmikanth Chatra, Shenai K Prashanth, KM Veena, Prasanna Kumar Rao
April-June 2012, 8(2):199-203
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98970  
Data from recent epidemiological studies provide overwhelming evidence that areca nut is the main etiological factor for oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). It is logical to hypothesize that the increased collagen synthesis or reduced collagen degradation is the possible mechanism in the development of the disease. There are numerous biological pathways involved in the above processes and it is likely that the normal regulatory mechanisms are either down regulated or up regulated at different stages of the disease. The copper content of areca nut is high and the possible role of copper as a mediator of fibrosis is supported by the demonstration of the up regulation of lysyl oxidase in OSMF biopsies. The aim of this article is to emphasize that the incorporation of copper into the areca nut is through the Bordeaux mixture, which is sprayed as a fungicide on areca plantations in regions with scheduled monsoons and of which copper sulfate is an important constituent.
  6 16,562 3,002
ANALYTICAL REPORTS
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma: A diagnostic challenge !
Ajay Malik, Ajit Veniyoor, Barnard Fanthome, Vibha Dutta
April-June 2012, 8(2):306-307
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98998  
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a spindle cell neoplasm of histiocytic-dendritic cells origin. It is known to occur in lymph nodes and rarely has been reported in extranodal tissues like head and neck, mediastinum and gastrointestinal tract. We herein report the first FDCS arising from anal canal in a 56-year-old man. The tumor was composed of bland short spindle cells in focal whorl formation with interspersed few lymphocytes. The tumor cells were classically positive for CD21, CD23, CD35 and vimentin. Despite its misleading morphology, immunohistochemistry helped us to reach a conclusive diagnosis for relevant therapy.
  4 5,295 425
Primary amyloidosis with high grade transitional cell carcinoma of bladder: A rare case report
Prashant Gupta, Satish Hanamshetti, Jagdeesh N Kulkarni
April-June 2012, 8(2):297-299
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98994  
Primary amyloidosis of bladder is a rare disease that closely resembles bladder cancer on clinical presentation with painless gross hematuria. Pathologically this is a totally benign non-neoplastic lesion and its association with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is rare. We herein report a 64-year-old diabetic male who has been treated for primary amyloidosis of bladder for the last 26 years presented recently with high-grade solid urothelial cancer with osseous metaplasia and sarcomatoid change of bladder with area of amyloid deposition.
  3 3,315 186
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessment of the redox profile and oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG) in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck
Anil Kumar, Mohan C Pant, Hirdya S Singh, Shashi Khandelwal
April-June 2012, 8(2):254-259
Background: In developing countries especially in south Asia, there are growing habits of consumption of tobacco and its products in various forms. These are known to generate a strong free radical environment and when the free radicals overwhelm the antioxidant system, they may lead to degeneration of cellular components and mutations. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the levels of oxidative stress determinants, which may be one of the critical factors in head and neck cancer development. Materials and Methods: This study included 100 consenting SCCHN patients and 90 matched healthy controls and we assessed the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), free radicals (RNS, ROS) and oxidative DNA adduct (8-OHdG). Results: We observed a substantial rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS, ~3.0-fold) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS, ~1.7-fold), together with significant lowering in TAC (~1.2-fold) and GSH (~1.7-fold) was observed. The 8-OHdG levels were also found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher in patients in comparison to controls. Pearson's correlation between blood ROS and GSH were found to be negatively correlated -0.38 (P < 0.01) and RNS and DNA damage positively correlated 0.44 (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Our present results demonstrate significant Redox imbalance in cancer patients suggesting their paramount importance in the development of SCCHN. The 8-OHdG could be the potential biomarker for evaluating risk of SCCHN. To develop new approaches of SCCHN prevention, there is a need of detailed study and better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and DNA damage.
  3 4,264 359
Quality of life assessment in survivors of breast cancer
Shaqul Qamar Wani, Talib Khan, Ashraf M Teeli, Nazir A Khan, Saiful Yamin Wani, Ashfaq-ul -Hassan
April-June 2012, 8(2):272-276
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98986  
Aim: The aim was to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its temporal variation at first visit and subsequent visits among breast cancer patients. Design and Setting: The prospective study was carried out in Outpatient Department of Radiation Oncology, University Teaching and Tertiary Referral Hospital. Material and Methods: After clearance from the ethical committee and EORTC group, 81 surgically treated female breast cancer patients referred to the Outpatient Department of Radiation Oncology for chemoradiation and hormonal therapy were included in the study after informed written consent, irrespective of the age and stage of disease. The patients were interviewed as per the EORTC QLQ-C30 Questionnaire module at four levels at the first visit and at subsequent follow-up visits at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively, and are still on follow-up. Statistical Analysis: The data collected were expressed as mean/raw score (RS), standard deviation (SD), and percent mean/scale score expressed on the linear transformation scale, derived as per the calculations and equations of the EORTC QLQ-C30 Scoring Manual. Intragroup comparison (IGC) was done at four levels/visits, a, b, c and d. A P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age at presentation was 46.6 ± 10.2 years. The study showed that the physical functioning, role functioning, cognitive functioning, emotional functioning, social functioning, global health status, and symptomatology showed statistically significant improvement over time (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The survivors of female breast cancer over the long-term follow-up showed significant improvement and coping mechanisms involved in a majority of HRQOL parameters.
  3 4,068 481
REVIEW ARTICLES
Micronuclei assay of exfoliated oral buccal cells: Means to assess the nuclear abnormalities in different diseases
Bina Kashyap, Padala Sridhar Reddy
April-June 2012, 8(2):184-191
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98968  
The micronuclei assay (MA) in exfoliated buccal cells is an innovative genotoxicity technique, which holds promise for the study of epithelial carcinogens. Micronuclei are suitable internal dosimeters for revealing tissue-specific genotoxic damage in individuals exposed to carcinogenic mixtures. This article reviews the MN assay with respect to oral buccal mucosa, which has been used since the 1980s to demonstrate cytogenetic effects of environmental and occupational exposures, lifestyle factors, dietary deficiencies, and different diseases along with the characteristics of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities.
  3 12,636 1,958
ANALYTICAL REPORTS
Systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma with multiple central nervous system lesions
Ali Meshkini, Sohrab Shahzadi, Alireza Zali, Aram Tajeddini, Javad Mirzayan, Amir Hamdi
April-June 2012, 8(2):311-313
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.99001  
Juvenile xanthogranulomatosis (JXG) is an uncommon histiocytic disorder that is usually benign and limited to the skin. The systemic form of JXG is rare and may be associated with severe morbidity and mortality especially in central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Here, we describe a six-year-old boy with disseminated skin lesions and neurological signs and symptoms. Diagnostic work up revealed multiple brain lesions. A skin biopsy and a stereotactic brain biopsy considered suggestive of systemic JXG. Treatment with prednisolone, vinblastine and methotrexate was successful with regression of skin and CNS lesions. The patient has been in remission for almost three years.
  2 6,343 412
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Overexpression of MDM2 protein in ameloblastomas as compared to adenomatoid odontogenic tumor
A Krishna, H Kaveri, RK Naveen Kumar, KL Kumaraswamy, S Shylaja, Sarvani Murthy
April-June 2012, 8(2):232-237
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98976  
Background: Recent studies on odontogenic tumors have identified various molecular alterations responsible for their development, and determination of epithelial proliferation is a useful means of investigating the differences in biologic behavior of these tumors. One such specific marker to identify proliferative activity and tumor aggressiveness by immunohistochemistry (IHC) is MDM2, 90-95kDa protein. Objective: This immunohistochemical study using MDM2 expression was undertaken to understand better the diverse biological activity of two groups of odontogenic tumors namely ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) based on their cell proliferation activity. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 cases, comprising of 36 ameloblastoma samples and 14 AOT samples, were subjected to heat-induced antigen retrieval method using citrate buffer in a pressure cooker. Consequently, the sections were stained with MDM2 monoclonal antibody and visualized using an LSAB+ kit. Results: In ameloblastomas, statistically significant association was seen between plexiform ameloblastomas, follicular ameloblastomas with granular cell changes, desmoplastic and unicystic variants. The predominant nuclear staining by MDM2 revealed overexpression in ameloblastomas as compared to AOT. Conclusion: The MDM2 overexpression noticed in plexiform ameloblastoma, follicular ameloblastoma with granular cell changes and acanthomatous ameloblastoma when compared to simple unicystic and desmoplastic ameloblastoma suggest a relatively enhanced proliferative phenotype of these solid multicystic variants of ameloblastomas. On overall comparison, higher expression was noted in ameloblastomas when compared to AOT. This indicates differences in the aggressive nature between these two groups of odontogenic tumors favoring the perception of a greater aggressive nature of ameloblastomas.
  2 4,218 408
The histopathological comparison of L-carnitine with amifostine for protective efficacy on radiation-induced acute small intestinal toxicity
Murat Caloglu, Vuslat Yurut Caloglu, Tulin Yalta, Omer Yalcin, Cem Uzal
April-June 2012, 8(2):260-265
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98982  
Background: The aim of the study was to compare the protective efficacy of l-carnitine (LC) to amifostine on radiation-induced acute small intestine damage. Materials and Methods: Thirty, 4-week-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups - Group 1: control (CONT, n = 6), Group 2: irradiation alone (RT, n = 8), Group 3: amifostine plus irradiation (AMI+RT, n = 8), and Group 4: l-Carnitine plus irradiation (LC+RT, n = 8). The rats in all groups were irradiated individually with a single dose of 20 Gy to the total abdomen, except those in CONT. LC (300 mg/kg) or amifostine (200 mg/kg) was used 30 min before irradiation. Histopathological analysis of small intestine was carried out after euthanasia. Results: Pretreatment with amifostine reduced the radiation-induced acute degenerative damage (P = 0.009) compared to the RT group. Pretreatment with LC did not obtain any significant difference compared to the RT group. The vascular damage significantly reduced in both of the AMI+RT (P = 0.003) and LC+RT group (P = 0.029) compared to the RT group. The overall damage score was significantly lower in the AMI+RT group than the RT group (P = 0.009). There was not any significant difference between the LC+RT and RT group. Conclusions: Amifostine has a marked radioprotective effect against all histopathological changes on small intestinal tissue while LC has limited effects which are mainly on vascular structure.
  2 3,545 315
CT findings in non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with gefitinib or erlotinib
Im Il Na, Du Hwan Choe, Cheol Hyeon Kim, Sun Hoo Park, Jong Heon Park, Jae Cheol Lee
April-June 2012, 8(2):247-253
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98979  
Purpose: We performed this study to explore the association of computed tomography (CT) findings with outcomes of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with tyrosin kinase inhibitor (TKI) such as gefitinib or erlotinib. Materials and Methods: We analyzed outcomes for 240 patients according to primary tumor (T), regional nodal (N) staging and diffuse small pulmonary metastases (DSPM) at the initial presentation. Tests for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation were performed in 92 patients. Results: On multivariate analysis for tumor response, the N3 stage was predictive of a poor response (P < 0.001), whereas DSPM was a favorable factor (P = 0.007). Multivariate analysis for progression-free survival showed that the T3-4 stage (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.5, P < 0.001), in addition to the N3 stage (HR: 2.1, P < 0.001), was predictive of a poor outcome, whereas DSPM (HR: 0.6, P = 0.006) was a favorable factor. Notably, the multivariate model that included the EGFR mutational status revealed that the T3-4 stage predicted poor progression-free survival (HR: 2.2, P = 0.017) and poor overall survival (HR: 4.1, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our data suggest that, in addition to EGFR mutational status, T-stage based on CT is predictive of outcomes of TKI-treated NSCLC patients.
  2 3,115 328
REVIEW ARTICLES
Oral biopsy: Oral pathologist's perspective
KL Kumaraswamy, M Vidhya, Prasanna Kumar Rao, Archana Mukunda
April-June 2012, 8(2):192-198
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98969  
Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.
  2 16,906 2,085
ANALYTICAL REPORTS
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor appendix with concomitant mucosal dysplasia, simulating pseudomyxoma on preoperative aspiration cytology
Kaushik Majumdar, Puja Sakhuja, Sukhpreet Kaur, Archana Rastogi, Ranjana Gondal, Anil Agarwal
April-June 2012, 8(2):317-319
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.99004  
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) has been described as a pseudosarcomatous proliferation of spindled myofibroblasts admixed with lymphoplasmacytic cells. The various terminologies like inflammatory pseudotumor, plasma cell granuloma, and inflammatory myofibrohistiocytic proliferation, used to describe this entity, highlight the controversial etiopathogenesis of this relatively indolent neoplasm. IMT has now been described in different anatomic locations. However, cases occurring in the gastrointestinal tract are rare with very few cases described in the appendix. We present a case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor appendix with mucosal dysplasia in a 41-year-old male, presenting with abdominal pain and lump in the right iliac fossa. Aspiration cytology yielded few atypical epithelial cells and spindle cells in a mucinous background, suggesting the possibility of pseudomyxoma peritonei. Awareness of IMT appendix with rare presence of mucosal dysplasia may help in preventing overzealous resection, especially in situations that on preoperative evaluation may suggest malignancy.
  1 4,311 213
Pleomorphic variant of lobular carcinoma breast: A rare case report with review of the literature
Amit Gupta, Naveen Sharma, Ashesh Kumar Jha, Akansha Gandhi, Usha Rani Singh
April-June 2012, 8(2):320-322
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.99005  
Pleomorphic carcinoma is a poorly described entity whose phenotype is not well recognized as within the morphological spectrum of breast carcinoma. The purpose of this report is to describe the clinicopathological features of this tumour with review of the literature. We report a case of invasive pleomorphic lobular carcinoma with coexisting classic lobular carcinoma in situ.
  1 10,319 333
Pediatric oral leiomyosarcoma: Rare case report
CV Divyambika, S Sathasivasubramanian, CL Krithika, N Malathi, D Prathiba
April-June 2012, 8(2):282-285
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98990  
Soft tissue sarcomas comprise a group of histologically diverse malignant neoplasms arising from mesenchymal cell lines. Among these, leiomyosarcomas are sarcomas exhibiting smooth muscle differentiation. Occurrence of this neoplasm in the oral cavity is exceedingly rare and its presentation is unusual in children. We present a case report of leiomyosarcoma of the oral cavity in an eight-year old child. Primary oral leiomyosarcoma, being a rare entity in children, this case report emphasizes the prompt recognition of this tumor to institute appropriate multimodality treatment.
  1 3,979 293
Incidental cystic endocrine tumor of the pancreas: A case report with immunohistochemical study
Sanjay D Deshmukh, Harveen K Gulati, Vandana Gaopande, Snehal Purandare, Mani Anand
April-June 2012, 8(2):289-291
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98992  
A large cystic lesion in the pancreatic tail was found incidentally in a 20-year-old female during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Pre-operative work up had revealed calculi in gall bladder and in addition, a cystic lesion in pancreas suggesting the possibility of a pseudocyst. A laparoscopic enucleation of the cyst was performed along with the removal of gallbladder. Microscopic examination of the resected specimen revealed a pancreatic cystic endocrine tumor; however, this tumor had produced no symptoms. Immunohistochemical studies of the tumor cells showed positivity for neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin indicating their neuroendocrine nature. Prognostic markers (CK19, CD10 and Ki67) indicated good prognosis. Although endocrine tumors of the pancreas are usually solid, cystic change occurs only rarely and such tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who have a cystic lesion in the pancreas in view of their rare transformation into a malignant tumor.
  1 4,283 263
Severe perirenal hematoma in a patient with a single kidney treated with sunitinib for metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor
Jon Zugazagoitia, Javier Sastre, Jerónimo Barrera, Beatriz García, Eduardo Díaz-Rubio
April-June 2012, 8(2):303-305
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98997  
A better understanding of the angiogenic process has markedly expanded the use of antiangiogenic therapy in many solid tumors. It is known that there is a close relationship between cancer disease, vascular homeostasis, angiogenesis and coagulation cascade. In this setting, antiangiogenic therapy could interfere and potentially increase the risk of bleeding or thromboembolic events. Sunitinib is an orally available smallmolecule multikinase inhibitor recently approved for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic, well-differenciated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with disease progression in adults. Here we present the first case of a severe perirenal hematoma in a patient treated with sunitinib for metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.
  1 2,408 174
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Psychostimulants for chemotherapy induced cognitive changes in cancer, Ockham's razor, anyone?
Varsha Dutta
April-June 2012, 8(2):326-329
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.99007  
  1 2,563 202
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Neo adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy and rectal cancer: Can India follow the West?
Vivek Bansal, Ritu Bhutani, Dinesh Doval, Kapil Kumar, Pankaj Pande, Gaurav Kumar
April-June 2012, 8(2):209-214
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98972  
Aims: The management of locally advanced rectal cancer has changed over the years with an emphasis on neoadjuvant chemo radiation therapy (CT-RT) followed by surgery. This study is undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment in our set of patients with a special focus on the outcome in large circumferential tumors. Materials and Methods: The study included patients who underwent neo adjuvant CT-RT between Jan 2006 and Oct 2009 in our institution. They received radical radiotherapy with conventional fractionation to a dose of 45-50Gy along with continuous two cycles of 5-FU infusion. All patients were assessed at four weeks clinically and by CT scan and underwent surgery if the tumor was resectable followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: A total of 52 patients received the neoadjuvant treatment in form of CT-RT out of which 13 patients had undergone defunctioning colostomy before commencing treatment for severe obstructive symptoms. Only 73% patients underwent surgery in form of AR (anterior resection) or APR (abdominoperineal resection) and adjuvant chemotherapy was delivered in 28 (53.8%) patients only. The patients who underwent diversion colostomy had worse disease-free survival (DFS) as compared to those who received definitive treatment (33% vs. 74.9%, P<0.009). Conclusions: This study represents Indian experience with standard neoadjuvant chemo radiotherapy followed by surgery in rectal cancer. Large circumferential tumors in our set of patients lead to poor outcome leading to more APR. Also this study supported the need for an abbreviated protocol which can be economically suited and organ preservation protocols have a long way to go.
  1 3,334 282
Linear accelerator based stereotactic radiosurgery for melanoma brain metastases
Mark E Bernard, Rodney E Wegner, Katharine Reineman, Dwight E Heron, John Kirkwood, Steven A Burton, Arlan H Mintz
April-June 2012, 8(2):215-221
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98973  
Purpose: Melanoma is one of the most common malignancies to metastasize to the brain. Many patients with this disease will succumb to central nervous system (CNS) disease, highlighting the importance of effective local treatment of brain metastases for both palliation and survival of the disease. Our objective was to evaluate the outcomes associated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the treatment of melanoma brain metastases. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 54 patients with a total of 103 tumors treated with SRS. Twenty patients had prior surgical resection and nine patients underwent prior whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). 71% of patients had active extracranial disease at the time of SRS. Median number of tumors treated with SRS was 1(range: 1-6) with median radiosurgery tumor volume 2.1 cm 3 (range: 0.05-59.7 cm 3 ). The median dose delivered to the 80% isodose line was 24 Gy in a single fraction. Results: The median follow-up from SRS was five months (range:1-30 months). Sixty-five percent of patients had a follow-up MRI available for review. Actuarial local control at six months and 12 months was 87 and 68%, respectively. Eighty-one percent of patients developed new distant brain metastases at a median time of two months. The six-month and 12-month actuarial overall survival rates were 50 and 25%, respectively. The only significant predictor of overall survival was surgical resection prior to SRS. Post-SRS bleeding occurred in 18% of patients and at a median interval of 1.5 months. There was only one episode of radiation necrosis with no other treatment-related toxicity. Conclusion: SRS for brain metastases from melanoma is safe and achieves acceptable local control.
  1 4,208 293
Efficacy and safety of amurubicin for the elderly patients with refractory relapsed small cell lung cancer as third-line chemotherapy
Nobuhiro Asai, Yoshihiro Ohkuni, Ryo Matsunuma, Kei Nakashima, Takuya Iwasaki, Norihiro Kaneko
April-June 2012, 8(2):266-271
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98983  
Background: While more elderly patients are being diagnosed with lung cancer every year, no anti-lung cancer therapy designed specifically for the elderly has been established yet. This is the first retrospective study to examine the efficacy and safety of amurubicin (AMR) for elderly patients with refractory relapsed small cell lung cancer (SCLC) as second or third-line chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients were eligible for analyzing the frequency of hematologic and non-hematologic toxicities and effectiveness of AMR for refractory relapsed SCLC in both elderly (≥70 years) and non-elderly (<70 years) groups. Results: Among these patients as third-line chemotherapy, the response rate and the disease control rate of refractory relapsed cases were 44.4 and 55.6%, respectively. The median of progression-free survival time was 3.0 months and the median of overall survival time was 5.1 months. There were no significant differences in the frequency of the grade 3-5 hematologic or non-hematologic toxicity between the elderly (≥70 years) and non-elderly (<70 years) patients or second and third-line chemotherapies. Conclusions: AMR could be one of the effective tools in the treatment of elderly patients with refractory relapsed SCLC as third-line chemotherapy, and the recommended dose is 30 mg/m 2 for three consecutive days.
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ANALYTICAL REPORTS
Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: Case report and management decisions
Nidhi Gupta, Rajesh Vashisht, Vinod Nimbran, Rakesh Gupta, Neerja Dhingra, Anjali Bhutani
April-June 2012, 8(2):323-325
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.99006  
Though breast carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, adequate knowledge of this disease is still very poor. Pure primary squamous cell carcinoma of breast is one such mystery, which is encountered very rarely. Its clinical behavior should not be correlated with the standard infiltrating duct carcinoma of breast. It follows an atypical presentation in terms of tumor size, lymph node and systemic spread. It is generally a triple negative tumor with an aggressive behavior and resistance to standard chemotherapeutic regimens. Management decisions need to be individualized with emphasis toward platinum-based chemotherapy and targeted therapy.
  - 7,753 457
Extremely rare giant retroperitoneal fibrolipoma: A case report
Bal Chander, Mani Krishna, Sita Thakur, Neelam Mahajan, Anju Vij, Jeevan Diwakaran
April-June 2012, 8(2):314-316
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.99002  
Lipomas are common benign adipose tumors generally located at superficial locations. Mostly they measure a few centimeters in size; however, giant lipomas measuring more than 10 cm in size or weighing 1000 g are also seen. Deep seated lipomas are rather infrequent out of which retroperitoneal location of giant lipoma is rare. Fibrolipoma is one of the uncommon variant of lipomas. A giant retroperitoneal fibrolipoma is extremely rare and only five case reports of such tumors are there in the literature. We herein present one such case in a 36-years-old female.
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A rare case of metastatic ductal type prostate adenocarcinoma presenting with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone: A case report and review
Hamid Shaaban, David Thomas, Gunwant Guron
April-June 2012, 8(2):308-310
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98999  
Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate is a rare malignancy and it accounts for less than 1% of prostatic adenocarcinomas as a predominant pattern. In general, the prognosis for these patients is worse than those with typical adenocarcinoma of the prostate. SIADH is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome associated with classic and poorly differentiated acinar prostate adenocarcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case of paraneoplastic SIADH associated with ductal type prostate adenocarcinoma. The case highlights once again that the patients with metastatic prostate cancer who present with hyponatremia should get a diagnostic workup for SIADH done due to the potential fatal consequences of this paraneoplastic syndrome.
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis of long bones: MR imaging and complete follow up study
Mohammad A Hashmi, Nazrul Haque, Argha Chatterjee, Suparna Guha
April-June 2012, 8(2):286-288
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98991  
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a relatively rare disease affecting the reticuloendothelial system in the pediatric age group. It can affect bones, lung, liver, spleen, lymph nodes and skin. MR imaging is particularly informative in diagnosis and management of bone LCH. In this report, we present the initial and 23 months post-treatment MR images of a femoral LCH lesion in a 12-year-old child to describe the role of MRI in bone LCH.
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Multiple cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas: Primary carcinomas versus cutaneous metastasis
Jasleen Kaur, Nidhi Sharma, Sanjeev Sharma
April-June 2012, 8(2):300-302
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98996  
Multiple squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is an exceedingly rare entity. It has been reported in a few patients of psoriasis treated with oral psoralen therapy and UV radiation, immunodeficiency states, local intramuscular metastasis and cutaneous metastasis from vulvar SCC. We report the case of a 55-year-old man who reported with a painless non-healing warty growth on the lower back persisting for the last 2 years which was excised. Its histopathology proved it to be SCC with HPV changes. On examination, 4 similar lesions were found on the upper back; out of which 1 lesion exhibited marked dysplastic changes on histopathology, but without HPV changes. This case could be either multicentrically developed SCC due to HPV infection or cutaneous metastasis as carcinoma of unknown primary site i.e. metastasis occurring before primary tumor diagnosis.
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BOOK REVIEWS
Recent Advance in Prostate Cancer Basic Science Discoveries and Clinical Advances
Nagraj G Huilgol
April-June 2012, 8(2):330-330
  - 1,282 127
Thinking Fast and Slow
CR Sridhar
April-June 2012, 8(2):331-332
  - 3,181 226
EDITORIAL
Hormesis: A peep in to the human nature
Nagraj G Huilgol
April-June 2012, 8(2):175-175
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98966  
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Resurrecting brachytherapy from brink of oblivion
Ramesh S Bilimagga
April-June 2012, 8(2):329-329
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.99009  
  - 1,630 132
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
In search of malignant transformation: A pilot study
Abhishek Singh Nayyar, Mubeen Khan
April-June 2012, 8(2):277-281
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98987  
Context: The role of oxygen free radicals in the initiation, promotion and progression of carcinogenesis and the protective role of antioxidant defenses has been the subject of much speculation in the recent past, with conflicting reports in the literature. Aims: The aim of this study was to measure the concentration of serum total proteins and albumin and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in the sera of patients diagnosed with speckled leukoplakia and well-differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of sera analysis of 30 new cases of histologically proven well-differentiated, oral squamous cell carcinoma and 10 patients with speckled leukoplakia aged between 40 and 60 years in addition to 25 healthy controls. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the difference between groups. To find out which of the two groups' mean was significantly different, post hoc test of Scheffe was used. Results: The study revealed variations in sera levels of albumin and advanced oxidation protein products to be statistically significant. Conclusions: The results obtained emphasize the need for more studies with larger sample sizes to be conducted before a conclusive role for sera levels of total protein, albumin and AOPP could be drawn as markers of transition of the various oral precancerous lesions and conditions to frank oral squamous cell carcinoma.
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Participation in decision making regarding type of surgery and treatment-related satisfaction in North Indian women with early breast cancer
Sushma Agrawal, Anshu Kumar Goel, Punita Lal
April-June 2012, 8(2):222-225
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98974  
Introduction: Breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy is an established modality of treatment in early breast cancer patients since three decades, but yet it has not been adopted worldwide. Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the factors affecting decision making regarding type of surgery and satisfaction with type of surgery in North Indian women with early breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared to assess the factors responsible for decision making regarding type of surgery (breast conserving surgery (BCS) versus modified radical mastectomy (MRM) and to evaluate involvement of patient in decision making regarding the type of surgery. 47 women with early breast cancer on radiotherapy or on follow-up were interviewed by the resident doctors. Results: Out of 47 patients, 28 underwent BCS and 19 MRM. Women undergoing BCS were younger, more literate than in those undergoing MRM. In the two arms (BCS versus MRM), decision for surgery was made by surgeon alone in 53% versus 73%, along with patient in 42% versus 6%, and only 10% women participated in decision making in each arm. Only 50% versus 30% patients had a clear understanding of the risks and benefits of both procedures in the two arms. Conclusion: North Indian women do not independently take decision regarding any type of surgery. The reason for opting for either kind of surgery was based on surgeon's recommendation or concern about recurrence. Body image was not an issue amongst majority.
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Evaluation of radiogallium-labeled, folate-embedded superparamagnetic nanoparticles in fibrosarcoma-bearing mice
Seyyedeh Leila Hosseini-Salekdeh, Amir Reza Jalilian, Hassan Yousefnia, Kammaledin Shafaii, Majid Pouladian, Morteza Mahmoudi
April-June 2012, 8(2):204-208
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.98971  
Context: Elevated expression of the folate receptor (FR) occurs in many human malignancies. Thus, folate targeting is widely utilized in drug delivery purposes specially using nano-radioactive agents. Aims: In this work, we report production and biological evaluation of gallium-67 labeled superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, embedded by folic acid ( 67 Ga-SPION-folate) complex especially in tumor-bearing mice for tumor imaging studies. Settings and Design: The structure of SPION-folate was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and foureir transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analyses. The radiolabeled SPION-folate formation was confirmed by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC). Tumor induction was performed by the use of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon injection in rodents as reported previously. Materials and Methods: [ 67 Ga]-SPION-folate was shown to possess a particle size of ≈5-10 nm using instrumental methods followed by ITLC test. Biocompatibility of the compound was investigated using an 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay followed by stability tests and tumor accumulation studies in fibrosarcoma-bearing mice after subcutaneous (s.c.) application. Statistical Analysis Used: All values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (mean ± SD) and the data were compared using Student t-test. Statistical significance was defined as P<0.05. Results: [ 67 Ga]-SPION-folate was prepared by a modified co-precipitation method possessing a particle size of ≈5-10 nm using instrumental methods (>95% radiochemical purity). Biodistribution studies demonstrated tumor:blood, tumor:bone and tumor:muscle ratios of 4.23, 4.98 and 11.54 respectively after 24 h. Conclusions: Due to the nano-scale size and high-penetrative property of the developed folate-containing nano-complex, this system can be an interesting drug delivery modality with therapeutic applications and folate receptor-targeting behavior, while possessing paramagnetic properties for thermotherapy.
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