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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2011| October-December  | Volume 7 | Issue 4  
    Online since January 19, 2012

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
An overview of evidence-based management of hepatocellular carcinoma: A meta-analysis
Mohammad Salhab, Ruben Canelo
October-December 2011, 7(4):463-475
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92023  PMID:22269411
Introduction: An increasing trend of incidence in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been recorded in most developed countries. HCC ranks among the ten most common cancers worldwide. The health costs and burden to the economy implicated by HCC are huge. In recent years, the surveillance programs and screening for the disease, in addition to increasing awareness, led to the detection of smaller precursor lesions of HCC in the liver. The rise of molecular-targeted therapies and the publication of various conflicting guidelines on the management of the disease demand a review of evidence into the curative therapies and medical management of HCC. Aims: The primary objective was to identify the survival benefit of the primary medical modalities in HCC, as more trials were uncovered between 2005 and 2010. The secondary objective was to conduct a meta-analysis. Selection criteria were implemented to select randomized controlled trials (RCTs), to include in this study. After selection, all the articles were ranked according to their strength. Materials and Methods: The MEDLINE, CANCERLIT, Embase databases, and the Cochrane Library were reviewed using the national library of health website. The time limit used for searching for RCTs was between January 2005 and December 2010. Overall survival and the cumulative probability of no recurrence were the primary endpoints considered in the studies to be assessed. These endpoints were measured over one, two, or three years, depending on the size of the study and the length of follow-up. The software package comprehensive meta-analysis ver 2.0.exe (Biostat, USA) was used to comply with the results, to conduct the meta-analysis, and help with analyzing the data. Results: The original general search yielded 193 RCTs between 2005 and 2010. Only 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. However, after the ranking of the studies according to strength, only 17 studies were eventually selected. The 17 studies were subsequently classified according to the following; surgical resection (n = 2); percutaneous treatments (n = 5); chemoembolization (n = 1); systemic treatments (n = 8); and other treatments (n = 1). Randomized studies comparing the percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) to the surgical resection were inconclusive. However, percutaneous treatments showed results similar to surgical resection in terms of overall survival. The meta-analysis comparing PEI to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) showed RFA to be superior to PEI in terms of overall survival at three years (odds ratio 1.698; 95% CI 1.206 - 2.391; P = 0.002). When adverse events were considered there was no statistically significant difference between the RFA and PEI groups (odds ratio 1.199; 95% CI 0.571- 2.521; P = 0.632). Conclusion: RFA should be the first-line treatment in patients with a single small HCC tumor ≤ 3 cm. Careful patient selection is crucial prior to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), as the procedure may be associated with an increased risk of liver failure. Tamoxifen has no role to play in the treatment of HCC. Sorafenib should be the first-line treatment in patients with advanced and inoperable HCC. The role of Sorafenib in the management of early stage HCC remains to be determined.
  42 11,892 3,121
Predictors and outcome of cervical anastomotic leakage after esophageal cancer surgery
Ali Aminian, Nekoo Panahi, Rasoul Mirsharifi, Faramarz Karimian, Alipasha Meysamie, Zhamak Khorgami, Abbas Alibakhshi
October-December 2011, 7(4):448-453
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92016  PMID:22269408
Background : Anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy remains an important source of postoperative morbidity in spite of advances in the management of these patients. The aim of this study is to identify the predictive factors of cervical anastomotic leakage and its consequences after esophagectomy in patients with esophageal cancer treated in a high volume cancer center. Materials and Methods : This retrospective study was conducted on 418 patients with esophageal carcinoma who underwent esophagectomy in a referral cancer center between 2001 and 2006. Demographic, clinicopathologic, and surgical data were collected from medical charts. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI 95% ) were calculated. Results : Predictive factors of leakage in univariate analysis were history of hypertension (P=0.003), diabetes mellitus (P=0.008), forced expiratory volume in one second percent predicted (FEV1%) (P=0.024), preoperative serum creatinine level (P=0.004), and degree of differentiation of the tumor (P=0.014); however, multivariate regression analysis identified history of hypertension (OR 7.2, [CI 95% :1.9 to 28.1]; P=0.004) and serum creatinine level > 0.85 mg/dl (OR 3.1, [CI 95% :1.04 to 9.04]; P=0.042) as independently significant risk factors. Pulmonary complications (P=0.042) and length of hospital stay (P < 0.0001) were observed significantly more in patients with anastomotic leakage. Cervical leakage was not associated with increased mortality rate (P=0.312). Conclusion : Preoperative conditions like hypertension and higher creatinine levels predict development of cervical anastomotic leakage after esophageal cancer surgery. Postoperative consequences accompanying leakage include pulmonary complication and prolonged hospitalization.
  11 4,210 437
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR - DOCUMENTING A CASE
Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall- mimicker of malignancy
Sunil Kumar Yeshvanth, Veena Shivamurthy, Channappa Patil, Sandeep Rai, Kishan Prasad H Lakshminarayana, Jagadish H Makannavar
October-December 2011, 7(4):496-498
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92017  PMID:22269420
  6 3,380 245
Osteonecrosis of jaw with the use of denosumab
Naveed Hassan Akhtar, Muhammad Zubair Afzal, Ali Arslan Aftab Ahmed
October-December 2011, 7(4):499-500
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92020  PMID:22269422
  6 3,891 497
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Stereotactic body radiotherapy for the treatment of presacral recurrences from rectal cancers
Sarahgene G DeFoe, Mark E Bernard, Jean-Claude Rwigema, Dwight E Heron, Cihat Ozhasoglu, Steven Burton
October-December 2011, 7(4):408-411
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92000  PMID:22269400
Purpose: Management of recurrent presacral rectal cancer is often not amenable to curative surgery. The goal of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cyberknife stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in the management of presacral recurrences. Materials and Methods: Between April 2003 and October 2008, 14 patients with presacral tumors from rectal adenocarcinoma were SBRT treated. Eleven patients were treated with 36 Gy in 3 fractions and 3 patients were treated with single fraction of 12, 16 or 18 Gy. Tumor response was assessed using response evaluation and criteria in solid tumor (RECIST) criteria. Toxicities were assessed with common terminology criteria adverse events v 3.0. Pain control was assessed. Results: One patient (6.7%) received SBRT as boost therapy. All patients had prior radiotherapy [median 50.4 Gy (20 - 81 Gy)]. Median tumor volume was 52.5 cc (19 - 110 cc). At initial follow-up of a median 4.9 months (1 - 16.3 months), treatment responses were complete response (n=3) and stable disease (n=8). With a median follow-up of 16.5 months (6 - 69 months), the one- and two-year LC rates were 90.9 and 68.2%, respectively, and the one- and two-year OS rates were 90 and 78.8%, respectively. No factors were significantly predictive of LC and OS. There were no grade 3 or 4 toxicities. Fifty percent (n=7) of our patients experienced pain with recurrence before treatment and 4 (57.1%) of them reported no pain after completion of their SBRT. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiotherapy for presacral recurrence of rectal adenocarcinoma is an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment modality which allows for palliation of pain.
  6 3,243 365
Toxicities, dose reduction and delay of docetaxel and paclitaxel chemotherapy in breast cancer without distant metastases
Woo Young Kim, Sang Uk Woo, Jae Hong Seo, Gil Soo Son, Jae Bok Lee, Jeoung Won Bae
October-December 2011, 7(4):412-415
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92004  PMID:22269401
Background: Docetaxel and paclitaxel are likely to have different toxicity profiles, dose reduction and delays despite their similar medical results in breast cancer patients. Aims: This study examined retrospectively the incidence and severity of certain toxicities, dose reduction and delay of two taxanes. Materials and Methods: From January 2009 to June 2010, the incidence and severity of toxicities as well as the dose reduction, dose delay, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in 54 patients with operable lymph node-positive (tumor stage T1, T2, or T3 and nodal stage N1 or N2) and high risk, node-negative (T2 or T3, N0) breast cancer without a distant metastases who received adjuvant chemotherapy - adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, docetaxel (TAC) and adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, paclitaxel (ACP)- were evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney test and Fisher's exact test. Results and Conclusion: The patients in the ACP group experienced more frequent peripheral neuropathy (P=0.025), nausea (P=0.033) than those in the TAC group. Febrile neutropenia was significant in TAC (P=0.001). Increasing age was associated with an increased risk of anemia (P=0.004), fatigue (P=0.009) and pain (P=0.003), and a decreasing body mass index was associated with an increased risk of febrile neutropenia (P=0.009). Dose reduction and delay occurred due to febrile neutropenia and an increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The dose reduction was only significant in the TAC group (P= 0.001). A taxane-based regimen should be chosen for breast cancer patients based on the pharmacokinetics, dosing schedule, clinical activity and toxicity profile that best meet the patient's therapeutic needs and quality of life.
  6 6,604 479
The value of frozen section evaluation in the management of borderline ovarian tumors
Emre Gultekin, Ozge Elmastas Gultekin, Basak Cingillioglu, Sevil Sayhan, Muzaffer Sanci, Yusuf Yildirim
October-December 2011, 7(4):416-420
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92005  PMID:22269402
Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of a frozen section and to analyze the factors affecting frozen section results in cases of borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs). Materials and Methods: The files and pathological reports of 82 cases diagnosed with BOT at our clinic, between January 1994 and June 2009, have been retrospectively evaluated. The frozen section results were compared to the permanent paraffin section results. Accuracy, overdiagnosis, and underdiagnosis rates were estimated. The factors affecting the diagnosis were also evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean age was 40.16 ± 14.01 years. Of the patients, 47.6% had serous and 42.7% had mucinous histology. About 90% of the cases were in stage I. The rate of correct diagnosis with frozen section was 69.5%. The rates of overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis were 1.2 and 29.3%; respectively. The factors affecting the diagnosis were determined as, the dimension of the ovarian mass (P = 0.005), presence of a solid component (P = 0.000), preoperative CA 125 value (P = 0.016), and intraoperative rupture of the ovarian cyst (P = 0.049). Conclusion: In the frozen section evaluation of BOTs, the underdiagnosis that restricts the diagnostic performance of the method seems to be a major problem. A more careful approach is therefore needed, while choosing a proper surgical technique during laparotomy for ovarian masses. In order to reduce the false diagnosis and surgical morbidity, the frozen section analysis should be applied by experienced pathologists and the possible predictive factors affecting a false diagnosis should carefully be taken into consideration.
  5 3,893 466
Efficacy and safety of concurrent chemoradiation with weekly cisplatin ± low-dose celecoxib in locally advanced undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A phase II-III clinical trial
Mohammad Mohammadianpanah, Sasan Razmjou-Ghalaei, Amin Shafizad, Yaghoub Ashouri-Taziani, Bijan Khademi, Niloofar Ahmadloo, Mansour Ansari, Shapour Omidvari, Ahmad Mosalaei, Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi
October-December 2011, 7(4):442-447
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92013  PMID:22269407
Background: This is the first study that aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of concurrent chemoradiation with weekly cisplatin ± celecoxib 100 mg twice daily in locally advanced undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Eligible patients had newly diagnosed locally advanced (T3-T4, and/or N2-N3, M0) undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, no prior therapy, Karnofsky performance status ≥ 70, and normal organ function. The patients were assigned to receive 7 weeks concurrent chemoradiation (70 Gy) with weekly cisplatin 30 mg/m 2 with either celecoxib 100 mg twice daily, (study group, n = 26) or placebo (control group, n = 27) followed by adjuvant combined chemotherapy with cisplatin 70 mg/m 2 on day 1 plus 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m 2 /d with 8-h infusion on days 1-3, 3-weekly for 3 cycles. Results: Overall clinical response rate was 100% in both groups. Complete and partial clinical response rates were 64% and 36% in the study group and 44% and 56% in the control group, respectively (P > 0.25). The addition of celecoxib to concurrent chemoradiation was associated with improved 2-year locoregional control rate from 84% to 100% (P = 0.039). Conclusions: The addition of celecoxib 100 mg twice daily to concurrent chemoradiation improved 2-year locoregional control rate.
  5 3,537 399
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Percutaneous computed tomography guided cryoablation of the celiac plexus as an alternative treatment for intractable pain caused by pancreatic cancer
Hooman Yarmohammadi, Dean A Nakamoto, Nami Azar, Salim M Hayek, John R Haaga
October-December 2011, 7(4):481-483
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92024  PMID:22269414
Computed Tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous cryoablation was performed in a 43-year-old patient with intractable epigastric abdominal pain caused by advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas and extensive celiac trunk involvement. Initial treatment with celiac plexus nerve neurolysis using local ethanol injection was unsuccessful. A 17-gauge 17-cm cryoablation probe (Galil Medical Inc. Plymouth Meeting, PA) was placed into the expected location of the celiac plexus through a left paraspinal approach under CT guidance and two cycles of freeze-thaw were performed. Patient's pain decreased from 10 of 10 (subjective pain scoring using a visual analog scale; VAS; 0-10) to 3. No post-procedure complication was observed. His pain has remained stable after 6 months of follow up. Percutaneous cryoablation appears to be an effective alternative to neurolytic celiac plexus block for palliative treatment of celiac plexus involvement. Further study with larger number of patients is needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy.
  4 3,103 325
REVIEW ARTICLES
Monoclonal antibodies in hematological malignancies: Past, present and future
I Tazi, H Nafil, L Mahmal
October-December 2011, 7(4):399-407
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.91999  PMID:22269399
Much progress has been made during the last few decades in the treatment of hematological malignancies. Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) represent a major advance toward a targeted therapy that can dramatically improve the antitumor effect with a substantial reduction of toxicity derived from therapy. Unlike many small molecules, MoAbs offer unique target specificity. Several MoAbs are now in clinical use for hematologic malignancies therapy, and many others are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art MoAbs treatment, beginning with an overview of the scientific background to their synthesis, mechanism of action and choice of target antigen, mainly focusing on those antibodies that are currently in use in clinical practice. Despite these advances, significant challenges remain in the identification of optimal cellular targets, antibody forms and treatment schedules for therapeutic applications.
  4 4,913 763
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR - DOCUMENTING A CASE
Multifocal calcifying fibrous tumor of the mesentery: An unusual case report with literature review and therapeutic implications
Jyoti Bajpai, Bharat Rekhi, Krishnamani Iyer, Aseem Samar, Abhishek Mahajan, Nirmala A Jambhekar
October-December 2011, 7(4):500-502
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92022  PMID:22269423
  3 3,836 207
Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the uterus: A case report with an unusual molecular pathology finding
Komal Kathuria, Sudeep Gupta, Amita Maheshwari, Ranjan Basak, Sangeeta Desai, Kedar K Deodhar
October-December 2011, 7(4):488-490
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92010  PMID:22269417
  3 4,200 266
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Histologic pattern, bilaterality and clinical evaluation of 957 ovarian neoplasms: A 10-year study in a tertiary hospital of eastern India
Santosh Kumar Mondal, Ranjana Banyopadhyay, Dipanwita Roy Nag, Suprio Roychowdhury, Palash Kumar Mondal, Swapan Kumar Sinha
October-December 2011, 7(4):433-437
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92011  PMID:22269405
Objective: The aim was to study the distribution of morphological pattern of benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms in different age groups in eastern India and to determine the likelihood of bilateral involvement in different morphologic subtypes. Materials and Methods: 957 cases of ovarian tumors were studied over a period of 10 years (from January 2001 to December 2010). Results: Most of the benign tumors occurred between 20 and 40 years of age, while the malignant lesions presented commonly between 41 and 50 years. The most common histological types were serous cystadenoma (29.9%), followed by mature teratoma (15.9%) and mucinous cystadenoma (11.1%). Major proportion of malignant ovarian tumors was contributed by surface epithelial tumors (60.9%). Serous cystadenocarcinoma was the predominant malignant tumor (11.3%). Metastatic tumors were found to involve the bilateral ovaries in 72%, while 49.5% of malignant serous tumors were bilateral. Borderline serous tumors showed bilateral involvement more commonly (27.4%) than borderline mucinous tumors (15.7%). Most of the malignant tumors presented as stage III (60%) or stage II (20%) disease. The overall survival rate was 85% for stage I tumors, 65% for stage II, 30% for stage III and 15.5% for stage IV tumors. Conclusion: We noted an earlier age at presentation of malignant tumors. Mature teratoma was found to be the second most common benign tumor (after serous cystadenoma). We also noted a lower percentage of endometrioid tumors. Lower number of stage IV tumors was noted, with a significant number of malignant ovarian tumors presenting at an earlier age.
  3 3,932 563
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR - DOCUMENTING A CASE
Composite Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: A rare case
Krishnakumar Rathnam, Shashidhar Karpurmath, Sanju Cyriac, Sagar Tenali Gnana, Shirley Sundersingh
October-December 2011, 7(4):484-485
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92006  PMID:22269415
  2 1,987 209
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Bone invasion in oral cancer patients: A comparison between Orthopantamograph, conventional computed tomography, and single positron emission computed tomography
Thashika Kushraj, Laxmikanth Chatra, Prashanth Shenai, Prasanna Kumar Rao
October-December 2011, 7(4):438-441
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92012  PMID:22269406
Background and Objectives: One of the important factors in the pretreatment evaluation of patients with squamous cell carcinoma is the detection of the presence and extent of bone invasion by the tumor, which is significant for planning the therapy and determining the prognosis. Therefore, a study was undertaken with an objective to compare the accuracy and predictability of an Orthopantamograph (OPG), conventional Computed Tomography (CT), and Single Positron Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) in the detection of bone invasion in squamous cell carcinoma patients scheduled to undergo surgery. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was carried out on 15 patients with clinically and histopathologically diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma. OPG, conventional CT, and SPECT were carried out on all patients. Subsequently, the bone adjacent to the tumor was assessed histopathologically and served as a gold standard. The various imaging modalities were compared with the gold standard. Results: The study revealed that the tumor infiltration into the bone was positive in eight out of fifteen cases and seven were negative for bone invasion. OPG and conventional CT showed the presence of bone invasion in six out of eight cases with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 100%. The positive predictive value for OPG was 100% and the negative predictive value was 78%. SPECT showed the presence of bone invasion in eight out of eight cases with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 14.3%. The positive predictive value for SPECT was 57% and the negative predictive value was 100%. Conclusion: The present study showed that SPECT was highly sensitive, but with a very low specificity due to an increase in false positive values. However, OPG and conventional CT showed an acceptable degree of sensitivity and specificity.
  2 3,521 457
Pro-apoptotic effects of Paecilomyces hepiali, a Cordyceps sinensis extract on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro
Asmitananda Thakur, Ren Hui, Zhang Hongyan, Yang Tian, Chen Tianjun, Chen Mingwei
October-December 2011, 7(4):421-426
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92007  PMID:22269403
Background: Paecilomyces hepiali (PH) is a derivative of Cordyceps sinensis (CS), a fungus that has been shown to have anti-cancer and pro-apoptotic effects. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of in vitro PH treatment on cell proliferation, cell cycling, apoptosis, and tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α) mRNA expression in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells (A549). Materials and Methods: A549 cells were treated with an aqueous extract of PH at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mg/ml. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to evaluate cellular viability and proliferation, while flow cytometry (FCM) was used to examine cell cycling. Apoptosis was assayed using Annexin V Fluorescein Isothiocyanate / Propidium Iodide (V-FITC/PI) and FCM. TNF-α mRNA expression was measured with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Cell proliferation was significantly suppressed by treatment with 1, 2, and 4 mg/ml of PH extract. Furthermore, the MTT assay showed that cell proliferation was inhibited in a concentration-time-dependent manner. As the concentration of the PH treatment increased, there were fewer cells in the S phase, and more cells in the G0/G1 and G2 phases. After 24 h of treatment, apoptosis was induced by a dose of 2 mg/ml of PH. TNF-α mRNA expression was significantly higher in the intervention groups and was positively associated with treatment concentration. Conclusions: These results indicate that in vitro treatment with an aqueous extract from PH limits cell proliferation, induces apoptosis, and causes cell cycle arrest of A549 cells; this suggests that it may have potential as a therapy for lung adenocarcinoma.
  2 5,470 531
EDITORIAL
Resurecting brachytherapy from brink of oblivion
Anusheel Munshi
October-December 2011, 7(4):391-392
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.91997  PMID:22269397
  1 1,879 177
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR - DOCUMENTING A CASE
Successful treatment with sunitinib in a young patient with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor after failure on adjuvant imatinib
Rakesh Kapoor, Divya Khosla, Pankaj Kumar, Narendra Kumar, Anjan Bera
October-December 2011, 7(4):491-493
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92014  PMID:22269418
  1 1,601 186
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Diagnostic value of acetic acid comparing with conventional Pap smear in the detection of colposcopic biopsy-proved CIN
Divya Hegde, Harish Shetty, Prasanna K Shetty, Supriya Rai
October-December 2011, 7(4):454-458
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92019  PMID:22269409
Aim: To assess the role of visual inspection with acetic acid as an alternative to Pap smear and in screening program for cervical cancer in low resource settings. Materials and Methods: A total of 225 women in the reproductive age group attending the Department of Gynecology were enrolled in the study. A Papanicolaou smear and visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid was done. All patients who tested positive on screening then underwent a colposcopy-guided biopsy. The Pap smear of a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and above was taken as abnormal. The statistical test used was the chi-square test and results were computed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12.0. Results: Out of 225 patients, acetic acid (VIA) was positive in 27 (12%) patients and the Pap smear was abnormal in 26 (11.7%). There were 15 LSIL, 6 high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 5 were squamous cell carcinoma. On biopsy, there were 15 mild dysplasia, 2 moderate dysplasia, 4 severe dysplasia, and 3 squamous cancers. The Pap smear had a sensitivity of 83%, specificity of 98%, and positive predictive value of 80% and negative predictive value of 97.9%. VIA had a sensitivity of 70.8%, specificity of 95%, and positive predictive value of 62.9% and negative predictive value of 96.5%. Conclusion: Since diagnostic values of VIA is comparable to Pap smear, and it performs well in detecting a high grade lesion, we conclude that VIA can be used as a screening modality for cervical cancer in low resource settings.
  1 5,364 570
BOOK REVIEWS
Enduring Cancer- Stories of Hope
Meena Tiwari Mishra
October-December 2011, 7(4):505-505
  - 859 80
An Accidental Immortal
Nagraj G Huilgol
October-December 2011, 7(4):506-506
  - 1,020 84
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Nuclear denotation and increased incidence of cancer: A present concern in cancer research
Viroj Wiwanitkit
October-December 2011, 7(4):478-480
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92026  PMID:22269413
The recent destruction of the nuclear electricity plant in Japan has led to nuclear leakage. The nuclear denotation has become the present issue of concern. In oncology, there is no doubt that exposure to nuclear leakage can cause cancer. In this particular brief article, the author discusses the existing evidence of nuclear denotation and the incidence of cancer.
  - 1,433 159
BRIEF REVIEW
Cellular phones: To talk or not to talk
Anusheel Munshi
October-December 2011, 7(4):476-477
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92025  PMID:22269412
Cellular phone use has exponentially increased in recent years. There have been some reports of an association of use of these phones with brain tumours. This article gives a summary view of the possible effects related to cellular phone use. It further discusses if we need to observe precautions while using these devices.
  - 3,443 434
INTERVIEW
Interview of Dr. Ramesh Bilimagga in conversation with Dr. Sapna Gupta
Ramesh S Bilimagga, Sapna Gupta
October-December 2011, 7(4):503-504
  - 1,441 104
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR - DOCUMENTING A CASE
Primary mixed small cell neuroendocrine-adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder
Neha Singh, Nita Khurana, Meeta Singh, Prerna Arora
October-December 2011, 7(4):493-496
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92015  PMID:22269419
  - 2,403 205
High dose rate interstitial brachytherapy in carcinoma eyelid: Can it be a primary treatment modality?
Mohammad Javed Ali, Santosh G Honavar, Vijay Anand P Reddy
October-December 2011, 7(4):498-499
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92018  PMID:22269421
  - 1,872 151
Urothelial carcinoma of bladder having rhabdoid differentiation with isolated scapular metastasis
Sunil Pasricha, Ather Hafiz, Jatin S Gandhi, Anurag Mehta
October-December 2011, 7(4):486-488
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92008  PMID:22269416
  - 2,031 163
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Impact of Gleason pattern up gradation after radical prostatectomy for carcinoma prostate patients with low biopsy score (≤ 6)
Jagdeesh N Kulkarni, Rohan S Valsangkar, Yogesh R Jadhav, Dayal Partap Singh
October-December 2011, 7(4):459-462
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92021  PMID:22269410
Context: Biopsy Gleason score (b-GS) is often different from the Gleason score obtained after analysis of radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen (rp-GS). Upgradation has an important implication in decision making for cancer prostate management, and is the focus of this study. Aim: To evaluate Gleason score upgradation after radical prostatectomy with low biopsy score (≤ 6) and its correlation to pathological findings and outcome. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective analysis of 257 cases of prostate cancer patients with initial b-GS ≤ 6, over a period of 14 years. Materials and Methods: Data were divided into two groups according to (rp- GS) as 1) Group A (n=151; rp-GS ≤ 6 ) 2) and Group B(n=106; rp-GS ≥7). Both groups were compared in terms of the following: 1) preoperative variables e.g. age, PSA, transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) status, clinical T stage; 2) pathological features - rp GS, pathological stage (pT), capsular penetration, cut margin, seminal vesicle and lymph node status; 3) biochemical recurrence, overall and cancer specific mortality. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t test and Chi-square test. Results: Group B had worse pathological features, except lymph node invasion, and they received significantly more adjuvant hormonal/local radiotherapy and had higher recurrence rate. However, the overall and cancer-specific mortality were similar in both the groups. Conclusions: b-GS upgradation after radical prostatectomy is frequent and correlates with adverse pathological features, higher use of adjuvant therapy and higher recurrence rate. In Group B, adjuvant therapy delays the biochemical or clinical relapse and controls mortality in short-term follow up. Group A had favorable pathological findings and less recurrence rate.
  - 2,256 229
Expression of fascin protein and mRNA in the KB carcinoma cell line following treatment with doxorubicin
Mojgan Alaeddini, Shamileh Fouladdel, Shahroo Etemad-Moghadam, Ebrahim Azizi
October-December 2011, 7(4):427-432
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.92009  PMID:22269404
Context: Fascin is an actin-bundling protein that has been shown to be overexpressed in various carcinomas, but the effect of doxorubicin on its protein and mRNA has not been investigated. Aims: The aim of the present study is to evaluate any changes that may be induced by doxorubicin on the fascin molecule in a cancer cell line. Settings and Design: Experimental study. Materials and Methods: The expression of fascin protein and mRNA in the human KB carcinoma cell line was evaluated by qRT-PCR, and immunocytochemistry following treatment with doxorubicin. Apoptosis was also analyzed using flow cytometry. Statistical Analysis Used: Group comparisons were performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc test to determine differences between groups (P < 0.05). Results: Treatment with doxorubicin promoted a significant increase of fascin mRNA and decrease of fascin protein (P <0.05). Doxorubicin also induced apoptosis in the KB cell line. Conclusions: Regarding the changes in the actin-bundling protein, fascin, which was found following treatment with doxorubicin, it can be hypothesized that this drug may possess antimigratory characteristics by influencing fascin. Further studies are suggested to clarify this theory.
  - 3,044 235
REVIEW ARTICLES
Lymphomas: Its gene expression profiling
Manjul Tiwari
October-December 2011, 7(4):393-398
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.91998  PMID:22269398
To find gene expression patterns in disease and biological processes the use of DNA microarrays has already begun to have a significant impact on modern medicine. Gene expression profiling have impact on hematological malignancies including from prognosis to its therapeutic regimens. DNA microarrays have led to the discovery of better prognostic tools and the mechanisms including molecular of lymphoma have clarified, with a help of cell cycle and DNA damage pathways that are responsible for tumor cell proliferation and different clinical outcomes. While in future it is hope that important discoveries will be done in leukemias, lymphomas, and many other cancer subtypes using gene expression profiling.
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