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Brain metastases from breast cancer:Management approach
Tabassum Wadasadawala, Sudeep Gupta, Vaishali Bagul, Namrata Patil
July-September 2007, 3(3):157-165
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.37409  PMID:18079579
Brain metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with breast cancer. HER-2 positivity is an increasingly recognized risk factor for the development of brain metastases. Although considerable progress has been made in the treatment of this complication, supportive measures like steroids, anti-seizure medication and whole-brain radiation remain the cornerstones of management in the majority of patients. The current review discusses the above and other issues like surgical excision, stereotactic radiotherapy, adjuvant radiation, radiosensitization and chemotherapy. A brief discussion of the recent evidence for the use of 'HER-1/ HER-2'-targeted therapy is also present.
  75,031 2,335 21
Malignant pilar tumor of the scalp: A case report and review of literature
Manish Siddha, Ashwini Budrukkar, Tanuja Shet, Mandar Deshpande, Ayan Basu, Nikhilesh Patil, Rajendra Bhalavat
October-December 2007, 3(4):240-243
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.39001  PMID:18270401
Pilar tumor is a rare neoplasm arising from the external root sheath of the hair follicle and is most commonly observed on the scalp. These tumors are largely benign, often cystic, and are characterized by trichilemmal keratinization. Wide local excision has been the standard treatment. Recent reports have described a rare malignant variant with an aggressive clinical course and a propensity for nodal and distant metastases which, therefore, merits aggressive treatment. In this report, we present a case of malignant pilar tumor of the scalp with multiple nodal metastases at presentation. Diagnostic and therapeutic considerations, in the form of adjuvant radiotherapy, are subsequently discussed.
  63,526 839 10
"Nano": The new nemesis of cancer
Shantesh Hede, Nagraj Huilgol
October-December 2006, 2(4):186-195
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.29829  PMID:17998702
Materials at nano dimensions exhibit totally different properties compared to their bulk and atomic states. This feature has been harnessed by scientists from various disciplines, to develop functional nanomaterials for cancer diagnosis and therapeutics. The success stories range from delivering chemotherapeutic molecules in nano-sized formulations to functional nanomaterials, which deliver thermal and radiotherapy at specific targeted sites. This brief review summarizes the recent developments of various nanotechnologies in cancer therapy and diagnostics, both from the research sector and the upcoming products in pipeline on its route to commercialization. Supportive engineering innovations and frontiers in nanomolecular research, with a potential to revolutionize cancer therapy, have been discussed in brief.
  54,828 2,849 25
Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence
Shikha Goyal, Tarun Puri, Ruchika Gupta, Pramod K Julka, Goura K Rath
April-June 2008, 4(2):95-96
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.42258  PMID:18688128
Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.
  34,084 675 6
Advanced research on anti-tumor effects of amygdalin
Zuoqing Song, Xiaohong Xu
August 2014, 10(5):3-7
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.139743  PMID:25207888
Malignant tumors are the major disease that cause serious damage to human health, and have been listed as the premier diseases which seriously threatened human health by World Health Organization (WHO). In recent years the development of antitumor drugs has been gradually transformed from cytotoxic drugs to improving the selectivity of drugs, overcoming multidrug resistance, development of new targeted drugs and low toxicity with high specificity drugs. Amygdalin is a natural product that owns antitumor activity, less side effects, widely sourced and relatively low priced. All these features make the amygdalin a promising antitumor drugs, if combined with conditional chemotherapy drugs, which can produce synergistic effect. In this paper, we summarized the pharmacological activity, toxicity and antitumor activity of amygdalin, mainly focused on the advanced research of amygdalin on its antitumor effects in recent years, providing new insights for the development of new anticancer drugs, new targets searching and natural antitumor mechanism investigations.
  32,415 2,009 -
Hyperthermia today: Electric energy, a new opportunity in cancer treatment
Giammaria Fiorentini, Andras Szasz
April-June 2006, 2(2):41-46
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.25848  PMID:17998673
Hyperthermia is an ancient, but nowadays rapidly developing treatment method in tumor-therapy. Its new paradigm applied in the electro-hyperthermia (oncothermia), which provides energy by means of electric-field and produces non-equilibrium thermal situation in the tissue. The temperature gradients formed in stationer conditions, destroy the membrane of the malignant cells and selectively eliminate the cancer tissue. The characteristic control parameter is the absorbed energy-dose, which is partly used to make the distortions, partly to increase the temperature of the target. This type of technique could be applied for some tumor sites, including brain, soft tissues, liver and abdominal masses, pancreatic cancer, head and neck tumors as well.
  32,813 1,466 19
Numb chin syndrome as a manifestation of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus
H Narendra, Satadru Ray
January-March 2009, 5(1):49-51
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.48771  PMID:19293491
Numb chin syndrome (NCS) is a sensory neuropathy presenting with numbness of the chin in the distribution of the mental nerve and the branches of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Though it can be caused by a benign process, NCS should be regarded as being due to malignancy until proven otherwise. Among the malignancies that cause NCS the most common are breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lymphoreticular malignancy. In squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the esophagus, spread to the mandible is a rare and often late event. An often overlooked clinical sign in mandibular metastases is hypoesthesia or paresthesia over the peripheral distribution of the inferior alveolar nerve/mental nerve; this sign has been referred to in the literature as NCS or numb lip syndrome or mental nerve neuropathy. Rarely, this may be the first presentation of a disseminated malignancy. Prognosis is usually poor. The discovery of this symptom should alert the clinician to the possibility of disseminated disease. In this article we report a rare case of metastatic SCC of the esophagus in a 40-year-old male patient who presented with NCS. We also review the mechanism, causes, and evaluation of NCS.
  32,690 704 8
Oral cancer: Etiology and risk factors: A review
Malay Kumar, Ronak Nanavati, Tapan G Modi, Chintan Dobariya
April-June 2016, 12(2):458-463
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.186696  PMID:27461593
Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the world. Oral cancer is of major concern in Southeast Asia primarily because of the prevalent oral habits of betel quid chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Despite recent advances in cancer diagnoses and therapies, the 5.year survival rate of oral cancer patients has remained at a dismal 50% in the last few decades. This paper is an overview of the various etiological agents and risk factors implicated in the development of oral cancer.
  26,508 3,504 -
Bone metastasis from ovarian cancer
Anu Tiwari, Narendra Kumar, Ranjeet Bajpai, Punita Lal
January-March 2007, 3(1):34-36
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.31969  PMID:17998717
We report a case of epithelial ovarian cancer, which presented with lumbar vertebral metastasis soon after treatment, as a part of distant spread. This patient was then treated by palliative radiotherapy and put on second line chemotherapy i.e., Topotecan. She responded to treatment well.
  29,129 878 6
Management of locally advanced breast cancer: Evolution and current practice
Ashish Rustogi, Ashwini Budrukkar, Ketayun Dinshaw, Rakesh Jalali
January-March 2005, 1(1):21-30
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.16086  PMID:17998621
Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) accounts for a sizeable number (30-60%) of breast cancer cases and is a common clinical scenario in developing countries. The treatment of LABC has evolved from single modality treatment, consisting of radical mutilating surgery or higher doses of radiotherapy in inoperable disease to multimodality management, which along with the above two included systemic therapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) has made a tremendous impact on the management of LABC. NACT was initiated to institute systemic therapy upfront at the earliest in this group of patients with a high risk of micrometastasis burden. While NACT did not yield a survival advantage, it has however made breast conservation possible in selected group of cases. Large number of studies and many randomised trials have been done in women with LABC in order to improve the therapeutic decisions and also the local control and survival. With this background we have reviewed various treatment options in patients with LABC which should possibly help in guiding the clinicians for optimal management of LABC.
  26,951 2,385 32
Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity
Richa Anand, Chandan Dhingra, Sumanth Prasad, Ipseeta Menon
July-September 2014, 10(3):499-505
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.137958  PMID:25313728
The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.
  25,948 1,286 -
Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer through calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet
B Thomas N Seyfried, Michael Kiebish, Jeremy Marsh, Purna Mukherjee
September 2009, 5(9):7-15
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.55134  PMID:20009300
Malignant brain tumors are a significant health problem in children and adults and are largely unmanageable. As a metabolic disorder involving the dysregulation of glycolysis and respiration (the Warburg effect), malignant brain cancer can be managed through changes in metabolic environment. In contrast to malignant brain tumors that are mostly dependent on glycolysis for energy, normal neurons and glia readily transition to ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate) for energy in vivo when glucose levels are reduced. The transition from glucose to ketone bodies as a major energy source is an evolutionary conserved adaptation to food deprivation that permits the survival of normal cells during extreme shifts in nutritional environment. Only those cells with a flexible genome, honed through millions of years of environmental forcing and variability selection, can transition from one energy state to another. We propose a different approach to brain cancer management that exploits the metabolic flexibility of normal cells at the expense of the genetically defective and less metabolically flexible tumor cells. This approach to brain cancer management is supported from recent studies in orthotopic mouse brain tumor models and in human pediatric astrocytoma treated with calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet. Issues of implementation and use protocols are discussed.
  24,221 2,101 21
Encapsulated papillary carcinoma of the breast: An overview
Kyrgias George, Zygogianni Anna, Kostopoulou Evanthia, Kouloulias Vassilios
October-December 2013, 9(4):564-570
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.126448  PMID:24518697
Any papillary growth of the breast presents both a diagnostic and a therapeutic challenge: For each one of them a diagnosis of whether they are malignant or benign in nature is required as well as appropriate staging and suitable treatment. In the international literature, we find a considerable amount of different terms being used for papillary breast growths. As a result, pathological and clinical evaluation is somewhat problematic. Encapsulated papillary carcinoma (EPC) is an interesting subgroup of breast papillary tumours. Because of its rarity, there have been only a limited number of large clinical studies that safely assess its appropriate treatment and expected outcome. However, more safe data exist in terms of prognosis - which seems to be excellent, as almost all published studies regarding these tumours have confirmed so far. We present a systematic overview of breast EPC and of the most important studies published on this topic in order to make diagnosis and treatment more straightforward for cancer clinicians. The information for this review was compiled by searching the Pubmed, Medline, Scopus, Embase, and ISI Web of Science databases for articles published from 1980 through December 2012. Electronic early-release publications were also included.
  24,986 647 -
Adult rhabdomyosarcoma: Clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome
Divya Khosla, Simit Sapkota, Rakesh Kapoor, Ritesh Kumar, Suresh C Sharma
October-December 2015, 11(4):830-834
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.144637  PMID:26881526
Objective: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in adults is a rare malignancy. The objective of our study was to determine presentation, treatment, patterns of failure, and outcome in this disease. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 25 patients of adult (>16 years) RMS who were treated at our institute from 2000 to 2009 was carried out. Tumors were classified according to the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) staging. All patients were treated with multimodality treatment except for three patients who received chemotherapy as the only modality. Results: The median age was 19 years (range, 16-68 years). The most common site was head and neck (52%) followed by extremities (24%), genitourinary (20%), and retroperitoneal RMS (4%). Three out of 25 patients presented with distant metastasis. With a median follow-up of 45 months, the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 45%. The 5-year local control (LC) rate was 53%. IRS grouping and complete response after primary therapy were predictors of a better survival. Conclusions: RMS in adults have poor prognosis as compared to childhood RMS. Adult RMS should therefore be treated aggressively with multidisciplinary approach comprising of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy to achieve cure and prolonged survival.
  23,912 789 -
Advantages of multiple algorithm support in treatment planning system for external beam dose calculations
January-March 2005, 1(1):12-20
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.16085  PMID:17998620
The complexity of interactions and the nature of the approximations made in the formulation of the algorithm require that the user be familiar with the limitations of various models. As computer power keeps growing, calculation algorithms are tending more towards physically based models. The nature and quantity of the data required varies according to the model which may be either measurement based models or physical based models. Multiple dose calculation algorithm support found in XiO Treatment Planning System can be used to advantage when choice is to be made between speed and accuracy. Thus XiO allows end users generate plans accurately and quickly to optimize the delivery of radiation therapy.
  23,287 1,202 7
The effect of three mouthwashes on radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck malignancies: A randomized control trial
PD Madan Kumar, PS Sequeira, Kamalaksha Shenoy, Jayaram Shetty
January-March 2008, 4(1):3-8
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.39597  PMID:18417894
Aims: The present study was done to assess the effect of three alcohol-free mouthwashes on radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck malignancies. Materials and Methods: Eighty patients with head and neck malignancies, scheduled to undergo curative radiotherapy, were randomly assigned to receive one of the three alcohol-free test mouthwashes (0.12% chlorhexidine, 1% povidone-iodine, or salt/soda) or a control. The patients were instructed to rinse with 10 ml of the mouthwash, twice a day, for a period of 6 weeks. Mucositis was assessed at baseline and at weekly intervals during radiation therapy, using the World Health Organization criteria for grading of mucositis. The baseline demography of the four groups was matched for age, sex, stage of cancer, and whether the patient had cancer of oral or extraoral regions. A post hoc test for repeated measures was used to find the difference of mean mucositis scores between the groups at various week intervals. Results: Among the 76 patients who completed the study, patients in the povidone-iodine group had significantly lower mucositis scores when compared to the control group from the first week of radiotherapy. Their scores were also significantly lower when compared to the salt/soda and chlorhexidine groups from the fourth and fifth week, respectively, after radiotherapy. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that use of alcohol-free povidone-iodine mouthwash can reduce the severity and delay the onset of oral mucositis due to antineoplastic radiotherapy.
  21,607 2,303 10
Oral cancer: Premalignant conditions and screening - an update
Deepa R Nair, Ritesh Pruthy, Uday Pawar, Pankaj Chaturvedi
January 2012, 8(6):57-66
Oral cancers form a significant portion of the cancer burden seen in our country. Typically, they tend to be preceded by a premalignant state for a long time. This article discusses the various types of premalignant disorders commonly seen in daily practice. Also, it is important to screen patients for these conditions so as to detect malignant changes early. Previously, the screening of patients for oral cancer and precancerous lesions has relied mainly on conventional oral examination. Nowadays, many newer techniques are available to potentially assist in the screening of healthy patients for evidence of oral cancer. This article attempts to review the current literature for screening methods and adjuncts such as toluidine blue, brush cytology, tissue chemiluminescence and autofluorescence.
  21,759 2,043 3
Dose concept of oncological hyperthermia: Heat-equation considering the cell destruction
A Szasz, Gy. Vincze
October-December 2006, 2(4):171-181
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.29827  PMID:17998700
We shall assume, of course, that the objective of hyperthermia is to destroy the malignant cells. Destruction definitely needs energy. Description and quality assurance of hyperthermia use the Pennes heat equation to describe the processes. However the energy balance of the Pennes-equation does not contain the hyperthermic cell-destruction energy, which is a mandatory factor of the process. We propose a generalization of the Pennes-equation, inducing the entire energy balance. The new paradigm could be a theoretical basis of the till now empirical dose-construction for oncological hyperthermia. The cell destruction is a non-equilibrium thermodynamical process, described by the equations of chemical reactions. The dynamic behavior (time dependence) has to be considered in this approach. We are going to define also a dose concept that can be objectively compared with other oncological methods. We show how such empirical dose as CEM43oC could be based theoretically as well.
  22,242 864 16
Human papilloma virus and oral infections: An update
KL Kumaraswamy, M Vidhya
April-June 2011, 7(2):120-127
Human papilloma virus (HPV) is one of the most common virus groups affecting the skin and mucosal areas of the body in the world today. It is also a known fact that HPV causes many lesions in the oral cavity. The most common conditions induced by oral HPV infection are usually benign-like oral papillomas, oral condylomas, and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Oral HPV infection has been found to be associated with some cases of oropharyngeal cancer, but it is not the main risk factor for this kind of cancer. HPV is been proved to be the causative agent in causation of cervical cancers without doubt, but its role as a etiologic agent in causing oral cancers needs to be evaluated and studied more to come into any conclusion. We have used review papers, case reports, cohort studies, case control studies, and various internet sources published from 1960 to 2011 to prepare this review of literature.
  20,423 2,632 20
Hyperthermia, a modality in the wings
A Szasz
January-March 2007, 3(1):56-66
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.31976  PMID:17998724
Hyperthermia is a heat-treatment. It is widely used in various medical fields and has a well-recognized effect in oncology. Its effect is achieved by overheating of the targeted tissues. It is an ancient treatment and a promising physical approach with lack of acceptance by the serious medical use. To accept the method we need strong proofs and stable, reproducible treatment quality, but we are limited by biological, physical/technical and physiological problems. However, the main point - I believe - is the incorrect characterization and unrealistic expectations from this capable method. The temperature concept of the quality assurance guidelines has to be replaced by the heat-dose sensitive characterization, pointing the essence of the hyperthermia method.
  21,187 742 12
A prospective study of pharyngocutaneous fistulas following total laryngectomy
SS Qureshi, P Chaturvedi, PS Pai, DA Chaukar, MS Deshpande, KA Pathak, AK D'cruz
January-March 2005, 1(1):51-56
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.16092  PMID:17998627
Pharyngocutaneous (PC) fistula is a common complication following laryngectomy. It leads to increased morbidity, delay in adjuvant treatment, prolonged hospitalization and an increase in treatment costs. Although a number of factors that result in PC fistula have been described, there is still no agreement on the most significant factors. We undertook a prospective study to critically analyze PC fistula and its association with various tumors, patient and treatment related factors. This was a prospective study that included 143 patients who underwent laryngeal surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and pyriform sinus. Use of pectoralis major myocutaneous flap to reconstruct the neopharynx, primary disease in pyriform and extensive soft tissue infiltration were significantly associated with PC fistula. Prior treatment (radiotherapy and chemotherapy), type of closure (T closure, Y closure and vertical closure), Layers of closure (full thickness interrupted, submucosal interrupted, submucosal continuous) type of suture material (silk, vicryl ), age, sex, stage, preoperative tracheostomy, cut margin status, pre/postoperative hemoglobin and experience of surgeons did not relate significantly.
  20,637 1,092 30
Vitamin D and cancer
Minu M Ali, V Vaidya
October-December 2007, 3(4):225-230
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.38998  PMID:18270398
Vitamin D, a fat-soluble prohormone is synthesized in response to sunlight. Experimental evidence suggests that vitamin D may reduce the risk of cancer through regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation as well as inhibition of angiogenesis. These anticancer properties have been attributed primarily to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH) 2 D] (calcitriol), the hormonal form of vitamin D. Extensive research has shown that cells, including cancer cells, express specific receptors (VDR) for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. When bound to the VDR, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D regulates >60 genes that exert prodifferentiating, antiproliferative and antimetastatic effects on cells, including effects on cell cycle. The amount of exposure to the sun has been found to correlate inversely with cancer mortality and survival in numerous epidemiological studies. An inverse relationship between solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure and non-skin cancer mortality has long been reported. Several ecological studies suggest that sunlight may protect against prostate, colon, rectal, female breast and ovarian cancer, all diseases that contribute to a substantially higher proportion of cancer mortality in the western industrialized world. Some analytical studies also suggest a protective association between circulating vitamin D in blood, which is largely derived from sunlight, or dietary vitamin D. Paricalcitol (calcitriol analogue) is as effective as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in transactivating the prostatic VDR and in inhibiting the growth of prostate cancer cell lines and primary cultures of prostate cancer cells in vitro. Promising preclinical evaluations of calcitriol and analogues have appeared in prostate cancer animal models.
  17,636 3,704 38
Butterfly glioma of the corpus callosum
Amit Agrawal
January-March 2009, 5(1):43-45
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.48769  PMID:19293489
The prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is poor even with aggressive first-line therapy, which includes surgery, radiation therapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Although the ideal course of treatment for elderly patients with newly diagnosed GBM is still undecided and requires further studies, the new chemotherapeutic agents administered with or without concomitant radiation therapy have shown promising results. However, in our setting, where resources are limited and newer treatment options are expensive, it is often difficult to deliver the best care to the patient.
  19,930 896 9
Analytical approach to estimate normal tissue complication probability using best fit of normal tissue tolerance doses into the NTCP equation of the linear quadratic model.
TS Kehwar
July-September 2005, 1(3):168-179
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.19597  PMID:17998649
Aims and Objectives: Aims and objectives of this study are to get the best fit of the normal tissue tolerance doses to the NTCP model of the linear quadratic model. Methods and Materials: To compute the NTCP, the modified form of the Poisson cell kill model of NTCP, based on linear-quadratic model, is used. The model has been applied to compute the parameters of the NTCP model using clinical tolerance doses of various normal tissues / organs extracted from published reports of various authors. The normal tissue tolerance doses are calculated for partial volumes of the organs using the values of above-said parameters for published data on normal tissue tolerance doses. In this article, a graphical representation of the computed NTCP for bladder, brain, heart and rectum is presented. Results and Conclusion: A fairly good correspondence is found between the curves of 2 sets of data for brain, heart and rectum. Hence the model may, therefore, be used to interpolate clinical data to provide an estimate of NTCP for these organs for any altered fractionated treatment schedule.
  19,059 1,478 41
Differential diagnoses of elevated lesions of the upper lip: An overview
Gowri Pandarinath Bhandarkar, Kushal Vasanth Shetty
April-June 2017, 13(2):170-174
DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.204890  PMID:28643729
This paper comes with a purpose to help the clinician as how to arrive at a logical differential diagnosis when an upper lip mass is encountered in day-to-day practice. The labial mucosa is commonly traumatized. One must be aware of the type of structures contained in the mucosa of the area of a lesion as well as the patients habits since they may relate to a lesion presented for diagnosis. It also helps them to procure a sound knowledge of the lesions by describing the lesions according to their clinical appearance and to aid the clinician in arriving at a differential diagnosis by considering that certain lesions have a predilection for the upper lip. All clinically similar appearing lesions are discussed according to their relative frequency of occurrence. This paper covers only a minority of plethora of elevated lesions that may appear on the upper lip since almost any soft tissue lesion or neoplasm (benign and malignant) may occur here.
  19,642 509 -