Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics

E-JCRT CORRESPONDENCE
Year
: 2015  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 1039-

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma with osseous metaplasia: Rare case report


Swapnil Agarwal1, Sangita Bohara1, Ruchi Jha1, Nita Khurana1, PN Agarwal2,  
1 Department of Pathology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Swapnil Agarwal
Department of Pathology, Maulana Azad Medical College, Room No. 62, Pathology Block, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi - 110 002
India

Abstract

Osseous metaplasia with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is exceedingly rare. There are less than 20 reported cases of osseous metaplasia in association with RCC. We present a case of 39-year-old male patient presented to outpatient department with complaints of pain in the left lumbar region since 4 years. Computed tomography scan revealed a heterogeneous enhanced mass lesion having areas of necrosis and specks of calcification involving the left kidney. Clinicoradiological diagnosis of RCC was made and left radical nephrectomy was performed. Histological sections from the growth revealed features of clear cell carcinoma Fuhrman grade-2 with a focal area of metaplastic bone formation. The prognostic implications of calcification per se are not very clearly mentioned in the literature. Patients with osseous metaplasia generally present with early stage disease and a favorable prognosis. However, few of them were of high grade and poorer prognosis.



How to cite this article:
Agarwal S, Bohara S, Jha R, Khurana N, Agarwal P N. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma with osseous metaplasia: Rare case report.J Can Res Ther 2015;11:1039-1039


How to cite this URL:
Agarwal S, Bohara S, Jha R, Khurana N, Agarwal P N. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma with osseous metaplasia: Rare case report. J Can Res Ther [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Sep 25 ];11:1039-1039
Available from: http://www.cancerjournal.net/text.asp?2015/11/4/1039/146109


Full Text



 Introduction



Calcifications are seen in a variety of renal lesions. First case of calcified renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was reported by Albrecht in 1905.[1] Since then renal calcifications have been reported in many vascular, infectious, cystic lesions as well as many benign and malignant tumors of the kidney such as oncocytomas, metanephric adenoma, wilms, neuroblastoma and sarcomas. However, there are very few cases osseous metaplasia in RCC.

We hereby present a case of 39-year-old male patient who presented with complaints of pain in the left lumbar region since 4 years. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a heterogeneous enhancing mass lesion having areas of necrosis and specks of calcification involving the lower pole of the left kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done, and cut section through the kidney showed a grey-white growth in the lower pole. Histological sections from the growth revealed features of clear cell carcinoma Fuhrman grade-2 with a focal area of metaplastic bone formation.

 Case Report



A 39-year-old male patient presented to outpatient department with the complaints of pain in the left lumbar region since 4 years. The pain was dull and present throughout the day and was not relieved by analgesics. There was no history of fever, dysuria, urgency or hematuria. There was no history of renal calculus disease, tuberculosis, or diabetes. On examination, patient was thin built. Per abdomen was soft and revealed tenderness in the left renal angle, but no mass was palpable. No abnormality was detected in any other organ system. Renal function and liver function tests were normal. Urine analysis was negative without any hematuria. X-ray of kidney, ureter and bladder showed stippled calcification in the left renal region. CT scan revealed a heterogeneous enhancing mass lesion measuring 12 cm × 8.5 cm, having areas of necrosis and specks of calcification involving the lower pole of the left kidney with a simple cyst in bilateral kidneys [Figure 1]. The tumor was confined to Gerota's fascia. No lymph nodal enlargement was seen in the hilar region. Clinicoradiological diagnosis of RCC was made and left radical nephrectomy was performed. On gross examination, the radical left nephrectomy specimen measured 12.5 cm × 6.7 cm × 4 cm. Cut section through the kidney showed a well-circumscribed, heterogeneous, firm, variegated grey-white growth in the lower pole measuring 3 cm × 3 cm × 1.5 cm. Single unilocular cyst was identified at the lower pole adjacent to the tumor measuring 4 cm × 2 cm × 0.1 cm. The tumor did not appear to infiltrate the surrounding normal kidney and was free from the renal sinus and the pelvis. The renal vein and ureter were unremarkable. Histological sections from the growth revealed features of clear cell carcinoma Fuhrman grade-2 with a focal area of metaplastic bone formation [Figure 2] and [Figure 3].{Figure 1}{Figure 2}{Figure 3}

The tumor focally involved the renal capsule. However, there was no infiltration into perinephric fat. The tumor cells were positive for vimentin, and cytokeratin.

 Discussion



Calcifications are present in a variety of renal lesions. First case of calcified RCC was reported by Albrecht in 1905.[1] Since then renal calcifications have been reported in many vascular, infectious, cystic lesions as well as many benign and malignant tumors of kidney such as oncocytomas, metanephric adenoma, wilms, neuroblastoma and sarcomas.

In the 10 year study at mayo clinic by Daniel et al. 111 cases out of 2709 renal masses were calcified with an incidence of 4.1%.[2] Most calcified renal parenchymal tumors were relatively large but tended to be localized and histologically well-differentiated. These tumors had a slow growth and were associated with a predicted 5-year survival rate of 77 per cent.[3]

Renal cell carcinoma with osseous metaplasia has rarely been reported. There are 14 reported cases of osseous metaplasia in association with RCC. However, osseous metaplasia with clear cell RCC is exceedingly rare. After a thorough search of the literature, we could find only five such cases.[4],[5],[6],[7],[8] Two of these case reports were in a cystic RCC and two in a solid RCC without a cystic component. Our case was without any cystic component similar to last two cases.

The exact mechanism of bone formation in RCC is not known. Several hypotheses have been put forward for ossification in RCC. One hypothesis suggests simple production of bone by tumor cells secondary to ischemia, necrosis, inflammation or there might be ossification in preexisting focus of calcification.

Recently, Yamasaki et al. reported involvement of bone morphogenic protein 2, an inducer of osteoblastic differentiation of pluripotential cells, in ossification of RCC.[9]

The prognostic implications of calcification perse are not very clearly mentioned in the literature. Patients with osseous metaplasia generally present with early stage disease and a favorable prognosis.[10] However, few of them were of high grade and poorer prognosis. Our case support a favorable prognosis as it was of Furham grade 2 and had no evidence of metastatic disease at presentation. The above mentioned patient is doing well at follow-up.

References

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