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Nodal metastasis of cervix carcinoma- As a probable cause of bone erosion

 Department of Radiology, IRCH, AIIMS Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Mukesh Yadav,
Department of Radiology, IRCH, AIIMS Hospital, New Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_374_18

Introduction: Carcinoma of cervix is a common gynaecological malignancy and remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. While nodal metastases are common in cervical cancer, major sites of the less common haematogenous metastases include lung, liver and bones. Bone involvement in cases of carcinoma of cervix is low and the estimates range from 0.8-16 % according to various series.Several patterns of bone involvement are observed in cases of carcinoma of cervix including, (1) direct extension into bone, either from the parametrial extensions of the primary or recurrent pelvic tumor, (2) direct extension into adjacent bone from the pelvic or distant lymph node metastasis (3) regional or systemic haematogenous metastasis to bones. Aims: To evaluate the pattern of metastases in patients of carcinoma of uterine cervix, with particular emphasis on the pattern of bone involvement on contrast enhanced CT. Settings and Design: Retrospective study. Methods and Material: This was a retrospective study, where we reviewed the hospital records and data of patients of cervical cancer who underwent contrast enhanced CT (CECT) of the chest and abdomen over a period of one year between January and December 2016. A total of 100 patients of carcinoma cervix were included. CT images were reviewed by two experienced radiologists. The bony erosion due to pelvic mass or lymphadenopathy was classified as subtle or gross. Results: Bone involvement was seen in 11 out of 100 cases (11% cases). Among 13 cases direct bone involvement by the pelvic mass/recurrence and metastatic lymph nodes (8/11; 72.7%) was slightly more common than thehematogenous bone metastasis (5/11; 45.4% cases). Among the direct bone involvement direct erosion of the underlying bone by the nodal metastasis (6/8; 75%) was twice more common than the direct bone involvement by the pelvic mass/recurrence(2/8; 25%) Conclusions: Direct bone involvement by erosion of adjacent bone by nodal metastasis is the most common mechanism of bone involvement in cases of carcinoma of cervix signifying the high propensity of lymph nodal deposits to erode the underlying bone. This finding of direct bone erosion is not seen in any other gynaecological malignancy and should be promptly looked for in all cases of carcinoma of cervix.

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    -  Ramalingam V
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