|Ahead of print publication
Mesenchymal stem cells in cancer therapy
Mohammad Reza Atashzar
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, School of Medicine, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran
Mohammad Reza Atashzar,
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, School of Medicine, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Editors : Khalid Shah
Publisher : Elsevier, Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cancer Therapy
ISBN : 978-0-12-416606-6
Pages : 42
Price : $27.81
Year of Publication: 2014
Edition : 1st
This book is a well-set book, which has been prepared for understanding the role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) at the treatment of cancer. Despite the considerable progress in cancer therapy, novel therapeutic approaches for covering pitfalls of current treatments are need. This unique book has been written in a specific manner and tries to provide a comprehensive perspective of cancer therapy concepts by using MSC. Author has provided an overview of natural sources of MSC, homing and migration to tumors microenvironment, antitumor effects of MSC such as delivery of cytokines, prodrugs, oncolytic viruses (OV), angiogenesis agents, and pro-apoptotic protein. Other parts of this book are using MSC combine with other therapeutic approaches and in vivo monitor the long-term fate of MSC after therapy. At the end, this written discusses the prospects and caveats of MSC at cancer therapy. The book is a collection of articles that were written by some scientists around the world, collected by Khalid Shah, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. The topics included in this book are classified into eight sections. In this book, all relevant issues from basic to advanced concepts are explained. Using of MSC for the treatment of diseases especially cancer is attractive and promising that is described in this book.
In Chapter 1, “Introduction” shortly authors discuss cancer therapy concepts by using MSC.
Chapter 2, “MSC sources” is intended to give a comprehensive overview of types and the sources of stem cells for isolation. Embryonic stem cells (ESC) derived from inner cell mass. Hematopoietic stem cells have been isolated from mesoderm layer. Induced pluripotent stem cells are created by inducing differentiated cells to express proteins that are specific to ESC. MSC have been isolated from brain, liver, kidney, lung, bone marrow, muscle, thymus, pancreas, skin, adipose tissue, umbilical cord blood, adult dental pulp, and Chapter 3 is named, “MSC homing and migration” in this portion the mobilization of MSC from the bone marrow to tumor site are discussed. In this interaction, cytokine/receptor pairs SDF-1/CXCR4, SCF-c-Kit, HGF/c-Met, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/PDGF receptor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CCR2, and high mobility group box 1/RAGE are introduced. Furthermore, authors discussed about Cell receptor transactivation, epidermal growth factor receptor, matrix metalloproteinases and their roles in cancer.
In Chapter 4, “MSC for tumor therapy” authors have expressed some aspects of antitumor effects of engineered MSC including; reduce the proliferation, antiangiogenic effect, induced apoptosis, and the inhibition of migration tumor cells. This chapter is including six portions. 4.1: MSC delivery of interleukins (ILs) – The results of some experiments indicate that MSC-delivered IL have the potential for targeting of cancer. 4.2: Interferons – MSC expressing interferons have anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. 4.3: prodrugs – MSCs that was engineered to express herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase (thymidine kinase), cytosine deaminase and… convert nontoxic prodrugs into toxic antimetabolites for selective killing of tumor cells. 4.4: OV – using MSCs as carriers for OV to selectively replicate in and destroy cancer cells. and use of them as an anti-tumor therapy strategy. 4.5: antiangiogenic agents – The using of MSC as vehicles for cancer antiangiogenic therapeutics has been introduced. 4.6: Pro-apoptotic proteins – The delivery of pro-apoptotic proteins such as secreted trail, offers a promising delivery method for tumor cell apoptosis.
Chapter 5 “synergistic approaches utilizing MSC-based therapeutics with other antitumor agents” is intended to give an inclusive overview of practical approaches to combine distinct therapeutic targets, such as apoptosis, cell growth, and the proliferation of tumor-associated vasculature.
Authors in chapter 6 “encapsulated MSC for therapy” suggested this technology for immobilization of cells within unique membranes. Stem cell encapsulation presents an important advantage such as delivery of therapeutic agents for a longer period as cells release these molecules continuously.
Chapter 7 “in vivo imaging of stem cell fate, antitumor agent pharmacokinetics, and therapeutic efficacy” bring forward some approach to visualizing and tracking the long-term future of stem cells in vivo. Authors have recommended some approaches for this monitoring including molecular imaging, using of reporter gene imaging, radionuclide imaging, including positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography, optical imaging.
As conclusion remarks, as the authors said the major strength of this book is the fact that it is a quick reference and provides a helpful and continuous overview of using MSC as a most attractive candidates for cell-based therapies in cancer. In general, this book serves as a compact reference for those who wish to find essential knowledge regarding MSC in cancer therapy.