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Hypopharyngeal cancer risk in Japanese: Genetic polymorphisms related to the metabolism of alcohol- and tobacco-associated carcinogens


1 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan
2 Department of Pharmacy, University Hospital, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan
3 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China

Correspondence Address:
Mikio Suzuki,
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0215
Japan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_980_17

Background: Several studies have investigated hypopharyngeal cancer (HC) risk in combination with xenobiotic metabolism-related genetic polymorphisms and the burden of alcohol consumption and smoking in European countries but not in East Asian countries. Patients and Methods: This hospital-based case–control study involved 61 male patients with HC and 71 male cancer-free controls. Information on age, body mass index, and alcohol and cigarette consumption was obtained from medical records, a self-completion questionnaire, and a thorough interview by an otolaryngologist. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), cytochrome P450 A1 (CYP1A1) MspI, CYP1A1 Ile462Val, glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-based methods. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by adjustment for age by the Mantel–Haenszel method. Results: The burden of alcohol and cigarette consumption significantly increased the risk of HC and showed a synergistic effect. ADH1B*1/*1 (odds ratio [OR] 7.34) and ALDH2 *1/*2 (OR 13.22) were significant risk factors for HC. Individuals with ADH1B*1/*1 or ALDH2 *1/*2 who consumed alcohol were more susceptible to HC. However, polymorphisms of CYP1A1 gene and GSTs were not significant cancer risk factors in patients with HC. Conclusions: ADH1B*1/*1 and ALDH2 *1/*2 were significant risk factors for HC, while polymorphism of CYP1A1 gene and GSTs was not a significant risk factor for HC. These polymorphisms determined the effects of alcohol and cigarette smoke in addition to burden of alcohol and cigarettes intake on the risk of HC.


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