Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
Ahead of Print

Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of the natural alkaline water (Zamzam) in breast cancer cell line MCF-7

1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University; Department of KFMRC, Immunology Unit, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Huda A Al Doghaither,
Department of Biochemistry, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 7775, Jeddah 21472
Saudi Arabia
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_381_17

Background: Zamzam water (ZW) is a natural alkaline water that contains several minerals that may represent a powerful tool for cancer therapy. Objectives: In this research, in vitro antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of ZW were investigated in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted between January 2015 and February 2016. The effects of ZW on the morphology and the cell viability of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 were determined. The cell death type and cell cycle changes were investigated using flow cytometry. Finally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also measured by fluorometric technique. Results: MCF-7 cells treated with either ZW with adjusted pH at 7.2 or unadjusted pH at 8 showed reduced cell viability of cancerous cells. The cell death occurred through the apoptosis pathway under both treatment conditions. The treated MCF-7 cells were arrested in the G2/M phase and decreased in the G1 phase. Only the unadjusted pH ZW sample demonstrated an increase in the production of both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial ROS in MCF-7 cells. Conclusion: All the results in the present study indicated, for the first time, that ZW might have anticancer and apoptotic effects on breast cancer cell line.

Print this article
  Search Pubmed for
    -  Al Zahrani SM
    -  Omar UM
    -  Rahimulddin SA
    -  Al-Ghafari AB
    -  Aldahlawi AM
    -  Al Doghaither HA
 Citation Manager
 Article Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded18    

Recommend this journal