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Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of the natural alkaline water (Zamzam) in breast cancer cell line MCF-7


1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University; Department of KFMRC, Immunology Unit, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Huda A Al Doghaither,
Department of Biochemistry, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 7775, Jeddah 21472
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_381_17

Background: Zamzam water (ZW) is a natural alkaline water that contains several minerals that may represent a powerful tool for cancer therapy. Objectives: In this research, in vitro antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of ZW were investigated in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted between January 2015 and February 2016. The effects of ZW on the morphology and the cell viability of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 were determined. The cell death type and cell cycle changes were investigated using flow cytometry. Finally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also measured by fluorometric technique. Results: MCF-7 cells treated with either ZW with adjusted pH at 7.2 or unadjusted pH at 8 showed reduced cell viability of cancerous cells. The cell death occurred through the apoptosis pathway under both treatment conditions. The treated MCF-7 cells were arrested in the G2/M phase and decreased in the G1 phase. Only the unadjusted pH ZW sample demonstrated an increase in the production of both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial ROS in MCF-7 cells. Conclusion: All the results in the present study indicated, for the first time, that ZW might have anticancer and apoptotic effects on breast cancer cell line.


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    -  Al Zahrani SM
    -  Omar UM
    -  Rahimulddin SA
    -  Al-Ghafari AB
    -  Aldahlawi AM
    -  Al Doghaither HA
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