Radioprotective effect of grape seed extract against gamma irradiation in mouse bone marrow cells
Reza Ghasemnezhad Targhi1, Amin Banaei2, Valiallah Saba3
1 Department of Radiology, Faculty of Paramedicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences; Department of Radiology, School of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Radiology, Faculty of Paramedicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences; Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Radiology, Faculty of Paramedicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Radiology, Faculty of Paramedicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Etemadzadeh Avenue, Fatemi Street, Tehran
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Ionizing radiations produce free radicals which are often responsible for DNA damage or cell death. Grape seed extract (GSE) is a natural compound having an antioxidant that protects DNA, lipids, and proteins from free radical damages. In this study, radioprotective effect of the GSE has been investigated in mouse bone marrow cells using micronucleus test.
Materials and Methods: Four groups of mice were investigated in this study: Mice in Group 1 were subjected to injection of distilled water with no irradiation. Mice in Group 2 were exposed to 3 Gy gamma radiation after the injection of distillated water. Mice in Group 3 were injected with 200 mg/kg of the GSE without any irradiation. In another group, mice were exposed to three gray gamma irradiation after the injection of GSE. Animals were killed, and slides were prepared from the bone marrow cells 24 h after irradiation. The slides were stained with May Grunwald–Giemsa method and analyzed microscopically. The frequency of the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs), micronucleated normochromatic erythrocyte (MnNCEs), and polychromatic erythrocyte/polychromatic erythrocyte + normochromatic erythrocyte (PCE/PCE + NCE) ratios was calculated.
Results: Injection of GSE significantly decreased the frequency of MnPCEs (P < 0.0001) and MnNCEs (P < 0.05) and increased the ratio of PCE/PCE + NCE (P < 0.0001) compared to the irradiated control group.
Discussion and Conclusions: GSE could reduce clastogenic and cytotoxic effects of gamma irradiation in mice bone marrow cells; therefore, it can be concluded that the GSE is a herbal compound with radioprotective effects against gamma irradiation. Free radical scavenging and the antioxidant effects of the GSE probably are responsible mechanisms for the GSE radioprotective effects.