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Interfraction prostate displacement during image-guided radiotherapy using intraprostatic fiducial markers and a cone-beam computed tomography system: A volumetric off-line analysis in relation to the variations of rectal and bladder volumes

1 Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Tor Vergata General Hospital, Rome, Italy
2 Department of Radiology, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy
3 Department of Surgery, Urology Unit, Tor Vergata General Hospital, Rome, Italy

Correspondence Address:
Gianluca Ingrosso,
Tor Vergata General Hospital, 00133 Rome
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_463_17

Purpose: Prostate motion during the radiotherapy course is an important issue. This study investigated the inter-fraction prostate motion in controlled rectal filling condition. Methods: 10 prostate cancer patients underwent image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) using a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system, after the insertion of fiducial markers (FMs). The planning CT was the reference CT (CTref) used to estimate the reference intermarker distances, and CBCTs were used for off-line comparison with CTref. We evaluated the influence of rectal and bladder volume on prostate shifts. We calculated the required planning target volume (PTV) margins in this patient population. Results: 120 CBCTs were analyzed. Mean prostate displacements (± SD) along the 3 axes (x, y, z) averaged over the 10 patients, were: 0.90 ± 0.84 mm in x, 0.00 ± 2.07 mm in y, -0.80 ± 1.28 mm in z. There is a statistically significant anti-correlation between prostate displacements and: bladder volume variations (P < 0.001) in the y-axis, and rectal volume variations (P < 0.05) in the z-axis. PTV margins obtained for the directions x, y and z are respectively 2.5, 5.6 and 3.9 mm. Conclusion: IGRT in reproducible empty rectum condition allow a high reduction of daily treatment uncertainties.

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