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Effects of food insecurity on the women esophageal cancer in the Zanjan Province

 Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Amir Najafi,
Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

 > Abstract 

Background: Nowadays one of the principal challenges of any country is improving the chronic disease and cancers. One of the most important of cancers is esophageal cancer in Iran. No doubt, esophageal cancer is an outcome of the interaction and combination of different factors. Cancer of the esophagus is one of the most common causes of death in adults (especially women) in Iran, where the incidence of this cancer is among the highest in the world.
Objective: The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that food insecurity could create esophageal cancer among women in Iran (Zanjan Province).
Methods: The method of this paper has been based on the analytical and descriptive research using fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) method. The subjects were 580 women aged 40-70 years (150 women have esophageal cancer), and they are selected randomly in the Zanjan Province of Iran.
Results: The food insecurity (such as hunger and hidden hunger) in the Zanjan Province, according to the 24 h food-recall questionnaire was 23% and 38%, respectively. Only 39% of the study population was secure in terms of having access to all key nutrients. The accuracy of the questionnaire for screening for hunger in the population was 88.78%, respectively, and the corresponding value for hidden hunger was 83.4%. The average value of esophageal cancer predicted using fuzzy cognitive maps is equal to 75.43% (for 36 months).
Conclusion: Our findings showed an association of food insecurity and body mass index (BMI) in the study population. Food insecurity increased the rate of underweight and decreased the rates of overweight and obesity.

Keywords: Food insecurity, fuzzy cognitive maps, Iran, women esophageal cancer, Zanjan

How to cite this URL:
Najafi A. Effects of food insecurity on the women esophageal cancer in the Zanjan Province. J Can Res Ther [Epub ahead of print] [cited 2018 May 20]. Available from:

Erratum Note has been published as under:;year=2017;volume=13;issue=1;spage=155;epage=155;aulast=


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