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X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein inhibitor Embelin induces apoptosis via PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibits invasion in osteosarcoma cells

1 Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning, China
2 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, 02215 MA, USA

Correspondence Address:
Tao Huang,
Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0973-1482.203599

Background: Embelin is an active compound identified as a novel X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) inhibitor from the Embelia ribes that exhibits various medicinal effects including anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. However, the therapeutic effect of Embelin to human osteosarcoma is not yet determined. Objectives: In this study, we evaluated the sensitizing potential of Embelin on promoting apoptosis to cause osteosarcoma cell death and inhibiting its invasion. Methods: We uesd 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide to detect the survival rates of osteosarcoma cells, Western blot to detect the expression of proteins in U-2 OS and MG63 cells, and fluorescence microscope to observe the morphology of apoptotic cells. Results: The survival of osteosarcoma cells decreased, When Embelin was used. Obvious condensed and flared fluorescence was observed, when used high-dose Embelin. There was an increase of caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 in Embelin group, while PI3K, AKt, p-AKt, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, and MMP-9 were downregulated. The invasion of Embelin application was significantly lower than that of the control application. Conclusion: Embelin promoted apoptosis via XIAP and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. XIAP inhibitor Embelin inducing apoptosis could cause osteosarcoma cell death and inhibit its invasion.

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