Deglycosylation of wogonoside enhances its anticancer potential
Chong-Zhi Wang1, Jin-Yi Wan2, Chun-Feng Zhang1, Fang Lu1, Lina Chen1, Chun-Su Yuan3
1 Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research, University of Chicago; Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
2 Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA; Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, JS 212013, China
3 Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research, University of Chicago; Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, University of Chicago; Committee on Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research, The Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, MC 4028, Chicago, IL 60637
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Scutellaria baicalensis is commonly used in Asia as an herbal medicine to treat a variety of ailments, including cancer. Wogonoside, one major constituent of S. baicalensis, can be primarily converted to wogonin through deglycosylation via enteric microbiome metabolism.
Materials and Methods: The antiproliferative effects of the glycoside (wogonoside) and its deglycosylated compound (wogonin) on a panel of human cancer cell lines from the most common solid tumors were evaluated using the MTS colorimetric assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were determined using flow cytometry. Enzymatic activities of caspases were measured, and the interactions of wogonin and caspases were explored by a docking analysis.
Results: Wogonoside did not have obvious antiproliferative effects on the cancer cells. In contrast, wogonin showed significant antiproliferative activities on all the tested cancer cells. Wogonin arrested the cells in the G1 phase and significantly induced cell apoptosis. The compound also activated the expression of caspases 3 and 9. The docking results suggest that the compound forms hydrogen bonds with Phe250 and Ser251, and π–π interactions with Phe256 in caspase 3, and with Asp228 in caspase 9.
Conclusions: After wogonoside deglycosylation, wogonin significantly enhanced its anticancer potential as a potent anticancer compound derived from S. baicalensis.