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Effect of smoking on high-grade cervical cancer in women on the basis of human papillomavirus infection studies

 Department of Obstetrics, Chengyang People's Hospital, Chengyang, Qingdao, Shandong, China

Correspondence Address:
Jian-Hong Fang,
Department of Obstetrics, Chengyang People's Hospital, No. 600, Changcheng Road, Chengyang, Qingdao, Shandong 266100
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

Purpose: We aimed, in the present study, to measure the risk related to the high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) or worse (CIN3+) or worse/high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions with respect to changes in human papillomavirus (HPV) and smoking status. Materials and Methods: A structured interview underwent for 7129 women. Then, we obtained their cervical cells and subjected to HPV testing. High-risk HPV infected and "no prevalent" cervical disease infected women were followed for cervical lesions up to 12 years (at baseline; n = 1531). Hazard ratios (HRs) for diagnosis of CIN3 (or worse) or worse/high-grade intraepithelial lesions were calculated along with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Among high-risk HPV-positive women, the conditions of long-term (more than 8 years) smokers and heavy (18 or more cigarettes/day) smokers are highly responsible for the increased risk for CIN3 or CIN3+. In the cases of persistent HPV-infected women, heavy smoking led to a higher risk for CIN3+ than those women who never smoked (HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.12-4.16). Conclusion: We concluded here that smoking leads to an enhanced risk of high-grade cervical lesions in persistent high-risk HPV-infected women. This makes a good understanding of smoking's role in cervical cancer.

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    -  Fang JH
    -  Yu XM
    -  Zhang SH
    -  Yang Y
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