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Diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid gland lesions: A study of 200 cases in Himalayan belt

1 Department of Pathology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
2 Department of ENT, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
3 Department of Surgery, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Reetika Sharma,
Department of Pathology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla 171 001, Himachal Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

Aims: The study is undertaken to correlate the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) findings with histopathology in a spectrum of thyroid lesions and to find the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) so that unnecessary thyroidectomies can be avoided in benign lesions. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out over the period of 1-year (May 1, 2012-April, 30 2013). FNA specimens obtained from 200 patients were analyzed. Of these, only 40 patients underwent surgery and their thyroid specimens were subjected to histopathological examination. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 9 to 82 years with mean age being 43 years. There was female preponderance, with male to female ratio being 1:7. On cytology out of 200 cases, 148 (74%) were benign, 25 (12.5%) were malignant, 16 (8%) were indeterminate, and 11 (5.5%) were nondiagnostic. Only 40 patients underwent surgery. On histopathology, 21 (52.5%) cases were benign and 19 (47.5%) were malignant. The statistical analysis of cytohistological correlation for both benign and malignant lesions revealed sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of 84%, 100% and 90%, respectively. Conclusion: FNAC is a minimally invasive, highly accurate and cost-effective procedure for the assessment of patients with thyroid lesions and has high -sensitivity and specificity. It acts as a good screening test and avoids unnecessary thyroidectomies.

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