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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 481-489

Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma: A reappraisal


1 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
2 Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Correspondence Address:
Pritinanda Mishra
Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-1482.204883

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Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant mesenchymal tumor with variable epithelial differentiation that affects mostly young adults and can arise at any anatomic site. Primary intrathoracic SS is very rare accounting for <0.5% of all lung tumors. Most commonly, it arises from the lung followed by pleura and mediastinum. Primary pulmonary SS (PPSS) affects both sexes equally with no preference for any hemithorax. The morphology, immunostaining properties, cytogenetic features, and management strategy of PPSS are similar to that of soft tissue SS. Histologically, there are two main types of SS – monophasic and biphasic with a feature of poor differentiation seen in both types. Most patients present with large intrathoracic masses with or without ipsilateral pleural effusion. Bone invasion or mediastinal adenopathy is very rare. SS is characterized by a specific chromosomal translocation producing SS18-SSX fusion gene in more than 90% of cases. Identification of this fusion gene remains the gold standard for the diagnosis in the presence of consistent histology and immunophenotype. Multimodality treatment including wide excision, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy is the mainstay of therapy. SS is relatively chemosensitive, and ifosfamide-based regimen showed improved survival in metastatic disease. Generally, SS is considered as high-grade tumors with a poor prognosis. Novel therapies targeted at fusion oncogene, SS18-SSX-derived peptide vaccine, epidermal growth factor receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor are the future hope in SS. We describe a prototype case and present an elaborate review on primary SS of lung.


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