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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 406-411

Lactate – A new frontier in the immunology and therapy of prostate cancer


Department of Medical Oncology and Radiotherapy, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Correspondence Address:
Iuliana Nenu
Department of Medical Oncology and Radiotherapy, No. 34-36, Republicii Street, Cluj-Napoca 400015
Romania
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-1482.163692

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Prostate cancer, one of the most common male malignancies with an increasing incidence in the recent years, requires the development of new methods of treatment. One of the most debated subjects is the tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). Although, the pathophysiological mechanisms are still a subject of intense research, TAM acts as procarcinogenic factors. It was also demonstrated that hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) induces the expression of TAM genes involved in prostate carcinogenesis. Furthermore, it should be noted that the stromal extracellular lactate, the result of tumoral glycolysis process is one of the HIF1 activators. In addition, lactate inhibits the differentiation of monocytes and dendritic cells and also induces the inactivation of the cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Through an analysis of recent studies, we conclude that lactate is a vital component of several ways of modulating the immune response at the stromal prostatic adenocarcinoma including TAM activation and cytotoxic T lymphocytes immunosuppression. Our review focuses on the impact of lactate on prostatic adenocarcinoma progression in terms of its immunology, and how this influences the therapy of this condition and the clinical outcome.


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