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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 716-720

Relation between kidney cancer and Soil leads in Isfahan Province, Iran between 2007 and 2009


1 Department of Remote Sensing and GIS, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, and Remote Sensing Researcher, Iranian Space Research Center, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Remote Sensing and GIS, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Date of Web Publication25-Jul-2016

Correspondence Address:
Masoumeh Rashidi
Department of Remote Sensing and GIS, Faculty of Geography University of Tehran, Tehran
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-1482.154936

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 > Abstract 


Introduction: The present study sets out to investigate the correlation between kidney cancer and the concentration of lead in Isfahan Province, Iran. All cases of kidney cancer recorded between 2007 and 2009 were utilized. In order to calculate the lead concentrations associated with the poll frequency of kidney cancer, the concentrations of lead in province (case study) were examined.
Materials and Methods: In this study, the first challenge was to collect some relevant information. In this connection, the authors managed to gain access to data concerning kidney cancer in Isfahan province. The data, which had been collected by Isfahan Province Health Centre, provided information from 2007–2009. Besides, Map of Lead Distribution in soil, which had been drawn by the Mineral Exploration Organization. Using GIS (Geographic Information System Software such Arc Gis), the researchers drew the map of the spatial distribution of kidney cancer in the province. In this research, we applied target detection algorithms on MODIS images to detect leads contamination in soil.
Results: The results indicated a significantly positive correlation approximately 88% between kidney cancer and the distribution of lead in soil.
Conclusions: The findings of the current study emphasized not only the importance of preventing exposure to lead but also the importance of controlling lead-producing industries.

Keywords: Correlation, Iran, Isfahan, kidney cancer, lead, spatial distribution


How to cite this article:
Rashidi M, Alavipanah SK. Relation between kidney cancer and Soil leads in Isfahan Province, Iran between 2007 and 2009. J Can Res Ther 2016;12:716-20

How to cite this URL:
Rashidi M, Alavipanah SK. Relation between kidney cancer and Soil leads in Isfahan Province, Iran between 2007 and 2009. J Can Res Ther [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Dec 10];12:716-20. Available from: http://www.cancerjournal.net/text.asp?2016/12/2/716/154936




 > Introduction Top


Nowadays, one of the most immediate concerns in the Iranian Healthcare System is the rapid spread of such malignant diseases as cancer.[1] It is estimated that one third of the cases of malignant diseases is preventable and a third is contingent on early diagnosis.[2] According to World Health Organization (WHO) data, environmental factors are responsible for more than 70% of cancer cases.[3] Over the past decade, a growing body of evidence indicated that epigenetic modifications have a role in lead inducing adverse effects on human health. The main epigenetic mechanisms are DNA methylation in gene promoter regions that regulate gene expression, histone tail modifications that regulate the accessibility of transcriptional machinery to genes, and microRNA activity (noncoding RNA able to modulate mRNA translation). The “double capacity” of lead to induce mutations and epimutations could be the main cause of lead -induced carcinogenesis.[4] Advances in medicine and cancer therapy have led into an increase in long-term survival for patients with a wide range of invasive diseases, though. Despite recent attention, environmental pollution is still one of the main reasons causing malignant diseases. On a more global level, nearly one million ton of lead is added to our environment annually.[5] Increased levels of lead in the body cause proximal tubular injury that gradually progresses to tubulo-interstitial disease and cancer. Lead accumulation in the proximal tubule leads to hyperuricaemia and gout, presumably by inhibiting uric acid secretion. With more than 1650 industrial manufactories. Large consortium efforts employing genome-wide scanning technology are underway, which effect of lead in renal carcinogenesis.[6] Isfahan province is a region prone to industrial pollutants. The area is also considered as one of Iran's major agricultural poles and the frequent use of chemical fertilizers for agricultural purposes adds a rather high amount of lead to the soil annually. Lead is absorbed by plants and thus finds its way into our daily diet.[7] The most serious problem with the lead element in the body is that it cannot be metabolized. In point of fact, lead cannot be disposed of by the body. This causes some malignant diseases such as cancer.[8] In the other side Esfahan is the second populated province in Iran and combining with high rate of pollution leads to highest rate of some disease such MS and cancer in Iran. These factors together made Esfahan a perfect case study to examine the relation of kidney cancer and lead contamination in soil and vegetation. Isfahan province, spreading across an area of about 107,045 square kilometres, equivalent to 6.3% of the total area of Iran, is located between 30 degrees 43 minutes and 34 degrees 27 minutes north latitude and 49 degrees 38 minutes and 55 degrees 32 minutes east of the Greenwich meridian. The province is 1550 meters above the sea level altitude. “Place” can usually be applied as a surrogate for the interaction between genetic factors, lifestyle and environment.[9] Although the role of place in human health has been recognised historically the focus in public health research has mostly been on person and time, with little consideration of the implications of place. Most public health specialists seem to have forgotten the space dimension of disease processes.[10] However, substantial recent advances in geographical information systems (GISs) now provide researchers and public health practitioners with an excellent environment in which to explore their data In addition, there is an increasing number of public health databases, in which the locations of the cases are recorded. It seems likely, therefore, that once they have understood its utility, scientists and public health practitioners will seek to use this spatial information. At first glance, spatial analysis and its tools appear dauntingly complicated. This is not so, but there is a need for a glossary to explain common terms in geographical epidemiology, spatial analysis and GISs.[11] The current study was an attempt to map the distribution of lead and the spatial distribution of the kidney cancer in the province


 > Materials and Methods Top


In this study, the first challenge was to collect some relevant information. In this connection, the authors managed to gain access to data concerning kidney cancer in Isfahan province. The data, which had been collected by Isfahan Province Health Centre, provided information from 2007–2009. Besides, we used Map of Lead Distribution in soil, provided by the Mineral Exploration Organization. Using GIS (Geographic Information System Software such ArcGis), the researchers generate the map of the spatial distribution of kidney cancer in the province.[5] In this research target detection algorithms are used to detect a selected material on the basis of its unique spectral signature. In this research, we applied target detection algorithms on MODIS images to detect Lead. MODIS is a sensor placed on the Terra satellite which collects data in 35 spectral bands with 250 to 1000 meter special resolutions. Target detection algorithms widely used for detecting Air, soil and water pollutions but target detection is applied on hyper spectral images which are expensive, discrete and with narrow swath. So, in order to detect Lead in soil we used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS ) sensor. After Georeferencing the wavelength of each band is assigned to it and Minimum Noise Fraction Transform (MNF) was applied to segregate noise in the data, and to reduce the computational requirements for subsequent processing. In the next step we used Constrained Energy Minimization for target detection. Spectral signature of targets is extracted from two sources. For the first resource we used favorable environments of lead generated by Geological Survey of Iran [Figure 1] and in each area we computed mean spectral signature as target for whole province. In second resource we analyzed all of as component and from these components we select a set of relevant ones in Isfahan soil [Figure 2].
Figure 1: Favorable environments of Lead

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Figure 2: Most Relevant Components of Pb. x-axes is wavelength in micrometer and y-axes is a index showing the amount of reflectivity of Pb in each wavelength comparing with a pure white and pure black imaginary material

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Remote Sensing Technique

Remote Sensing is a useful environmental monitoring tool. Since 2000, Researchers used remote sensing in to detect detect different type of pollutions.[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18] For instance, Wu et al., in 2003 used remote sensing and spectroscopy to detect different soil contaminations such Ni, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn they showed that the prediction accuracy for Ni, Cr, Cu and Hg was higher than Zn and As .[19] We used this technique to map spatial variability of different components of lead. Using hyper spectral images is the most common method to detect soil contamination. Different hyper-spectral sensors collect data from surface such as Hyperion and Aviris. Those sensors collect data with 20–100 meter special resolution and in 50–200 spectrums. There are indirect and direct methods for using hyper spectral images.[12] Direct method is more suitable but in most cases contaminants are concealed in soil and under vegetation and therefore cannot be measured directly by remote sensing. However, soil contaminants were detected using the spectral red-edge to indicate vegetation stress caused by the presence of the contaminants. This technique is called indirect method. In our case Esfahan is a dry and desert so we can use target detection algorithm.

Target detection algorithms works on hyper spectral images which has more than 50 bands but in order to apply this technique in Modis we compute 10 more index including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and other indexes introduced by researchers for different substances to increase diversity of different materials.[20] By using this method we compensate high spatial resolution of MODIS which leads to a mixture of different materials in each pixel. We implemented the following target detection methods to the images.[21] In the next step we use constrained Energy Minimization method (CEM), Decision fusion method was used to combine the results. In this combination, each pixel is contaminated of 1 algorithm detect it as contaminated [Figure 3]. [Table 1] shows the results of our calculations.
Figure 3: Lead element distribution maps in Isfahan Province

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Table 1: Prevalent components of lead

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 > Results Top


The population under investigation included 2729 medical records for patients suffering from kidney cancer. Because of its rather high number patients with kidney cancer, the period studied (2007-2009) is sufficiently reliable [Figure 4].
Figure 4: Spatial distribution of Kidney cancer in Isfahan Province (Ratio to population per 10000 person)

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The map for the distribution of kidney cancer is presented in [Figure 4]. As the figure shows, the cities of Isfahan, Najaf Abad, Kashan, Naeein, Ardestan and Natanz have hosted the highest number of kidney cancer. This rate positively correlates with the distribution of lead in the province.

The potential relationship between lead in the soil and cancer incidence was examined using a regression analysis. To test the hypothesis, “Do lead in soil in province have an impact on cancer incidence values?” analysis was conducted. The analysis revealed to what extent lead in the soil explained the observed cancer incidence values. Regression analyses were performed at the 88% validation [Figure 5]. There have been several stories in the media today about soil pollution causing cancer. These have been triggered by an announcement from the World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) about their latest analysis of the evidence on outdoor soil pollution. The reason soil pollution is so hard for researchers to study is that it's a complicated mixture of many different things.
Figure 5: Relation between kidney cancer and lead

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The main sources of soil leads pollution include transport, industry, fossil fuel power stations, farming and fuels. Some pollutants, are natural.

Most of the research into the health effects of soil pollution relates to a few substances that tend to be part of soil quality regulations. This means their levels are measured in many places around the world, so scientists can look for links between the amounts people were exposed to and whether they developed cancer. Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between ambient soil pollution exposure and cancer is reviewed, The results of this study confirm this.


 > Discussion Top


Lead is a bluish-white metallic element, which is extremely toxic.[22] Lead is one of the most detrimental elements. Impaired synthesis of haemoglobin and anemia, malignant diseases, hypertension, kidney damage, miscarriages and premature infants, nervous system disorders, brain damage, male infertility, loss of learning and behavioral disorders in children are only some of the negative effects of high concentrations of lead. Lead exists naturally in the environment, but in most cases the increase in quantity is the human activities.[23] The spatial distribution of kidney cancer in Isfahan province delineated above revealed a positive correlation between the amount of lead and the high frequency of kidney cancer. Lead exists in industrial pollutants, fertilizers and other agricultural items. Based on international standards, the permitted amount of lead in soil is between 50 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg.[24] Prevention through community intervention is possible by identifying harmful elements in the environment. The best strategy is prevention from exposure. Reducing the number of lead-producing industries can also be helpful. In this way, collaboration between geographical and medical sciences, health workers, legislators and the community is definitely needed. To solve the global problem, soil resources should be evaluated and tested periodically. In the case of toxic poisoning of soil, preventive measures should be taken such as using filters to prevent the entry of sewage into rivers, freshwater resources, and the soil. Health warnings should be given to people at risk. Cultivation of plants that absorb toxic elements has to be suspended.[25] By analysing the elements and patterns, it is possible to determine and track the spatial distribution of various diseases.[26] According to the results of this study, not all diseases are caused by inheritance or genetic factors. In fact, environmental factors could also be responsible for some diseases such as malignant. The findings of this study underscore the importance of preventing Pb exposure. Control Pb producing industries to improve work-related environmental health and increasing the knowledge of health professionals and the general population in this regard are also of high importance. Programs aiming at lowering the cancer risk will thus have to consider effective measures to reduce the production of and exposures to Pb and other industrial metals that are currently contaminating the environment.[27]


 > Acknowledgments Top


The authors gratefully acknowledge the all personnel of Isfahan Province Health Centre whom cooperated in this investigation.

 
 > References Top

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