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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 469-473

Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: An update

1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Rural Dental College, Loni, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Pathology, Rural Medical College, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences, Loni, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Anita Munde
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Rural Dental College, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences, Loni A/P-Loni, Tal-Rahata, Ahmednagar - 413736, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0973-1482.151443

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Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a rare form of oral leukoplakia, which was first described in 1985 by Hansen et al. Since then, various published case series have presented PVL as a disease with aggressive biological behavior due to its high probability of recurrence and a high rate of malignant transformation, usually higher than 70%. PVL is a long-term progressive condition, which is observed more frequently in elderly women, over 60 years at the time of diagnosis. The buccal mucosa and tongue are the most frequently involved sites. It develops initially as a white plaque of hyperkeratosis that eventually becomes a multifocal disease with confluent, exophytic and proliferative features with a progressive deterioration of the lesions, making it more and more difficult to control. Tobacco use does not seem to have a significant influence on the appearance or progression of PVL and may occur both in smokers and nonsmokers. Prognosis is poor for this seemingly harmless-appearing white lesion of the oral mucosa. At present, the etiology of PVL remains unclear as well as its management and diagnosis, which is still retrospective, late and poorly defined, lacking consensus criteria. This short review discusses the clinical and histopathological features, diagnosis, traditional treatment and the current management of the disease.

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