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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 209-211

Serum level of interleukin-17 and interleukin-35 as a biomarker for diagnosis of thyroid cancer


Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Suzhou Kowloon Hospital Affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215021, P.R, China

Date of Web Publication26-Oct-2015

Correspondence Address:
Yi Lu
Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Suzhou Kowloon Hospital Affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215021
China
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-1482.168187

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 > Abstract 

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum level of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-35 in thyroid cancer patients and its diagnostic value as a biomarker.
Methods: Sixty-one thyroid carcinoma patients were recruited from January 2012 to December 2014 in our hospital. Of the 61 included cases, 42 subjects were pathology confirmed with thyroid cancer and other 19 cases were diagnosed with thyroid adenoma. The serum level of IL-17 and IL-35 were compared between the two groups. The diagnosed sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) for serum IL-17 and IL-35 were evaluated according to Bayes theorem.
Results: The serum level of IL-17 were 16.3 ± 4.1 pg/ml and 9.4 ± 3.6 pg/ml for the thyroid cancer and thyroid adenoma patients respectively, with statistical difference (P < 0.05). The serum level of IL-35 were 48.8 ± 7.8 pg/ml and 62.3 ± 9.6 pg/ml for the thyroid cancer and thyroid adenoma patients, respectively, which indicated that the thyroid adenoma group was much higher with statistical difference (P < 0.05). The diagnosis sensitivity and specificity for serum IL-17 were 71.4% and 80.2% at the cutoff value of 12.1 pg/ml with the area under the ROC of 0.8239. The diagnosis sensitivity and specificity for serum IL-35 were 76.8% and 82.4% at the cutoff value of 57.6 pg/ml with the area under the ROC of 0.8722.
Conclusion: The serum level of IL-17 and IL-35 was significantly different between thyroid cancer and thyroid adenoma patients, which could be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid tumor.

Keywords: Biomarker, diagnosis, interleukin-17, interleukin-35, thyroid adenoma, thyroid cancer


How to cite this article:
Lu Y, Yuan Y. Serum level of interleukin-17 and interleukin-35 as a biomarker for diagnosis of thyroid cancer. J Can Res Ther 2015;11, Suppl S2:209-11

How to cite this URL:
Lu Y, Yuan Y. Serum level of interleukin-17 and interleukin-35 as a biomarker for diagnosis of thyroid cancer. J Can Res Ther [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Dec 6];11:209-11. Available from: http://www.cancerjournal.net/text.asp?2015/11/6/209/168187


 > Introduction Top


Malignant thyroid carcinoma is a cancer originating from follicular or parafollicular thyroid cells.[1] These cells give rise to both well-differentiated cancers (papillary and follicular) and anaplastic thyroid cancer. The second cell type, the C or parafollicular cell, produces the hormone calcitonin and is the cell of origin for medullary thyroid carcinoma.[2] Globally, cancer statistical analysis showed that thyroid cancer is one of the most happed endocrine tumors with prevalence raising in the recent years.[3] Interleukin (IL) family is an important cytokine, which plays an important role in the regulation of inflammation.[4],[5] IL-17 is a member of IL family, which plays an important role in the process of inflammatory reaction. Moreover, IL-35 is a new type of cytokine, which plays an important role in inhibiting the inflammatory reaction. Some published articles had showed that the serum level of IL-17 was elevated and IL-35 was decreased in the thyroid cancer patients.[6] In this study, we evaluated the serum level of IL-17 and IL-35 in the thyroid cancer and thyroid adenoma patients. Moreover, further assess the clinical efficacy of serum IL-17 and IL-35 as a biomarker in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer is needed.


 > Methods Top


Patients included in this study

Sixty-one thyroid carcinoma patients were recruited from January 2012 to December 2014 in our hospital. Of the 61 included cases, 42 subjects were pathology confirmed with thyroid cancer and other 19 cases were diagnosed with thyroid adenoma. The mean age of the thyroid cancer and thyroid adenoma were 41.6 ± 9.8 and 40.1 ± 11.3, respectively, without any statistical difference. In the thyroid cancer group, there were 13 male and 29 female patients and for thyroid adenoma group, there were 6 male and 13 female subjects. The gender distribution for thyroid cancer and thyroid adenoma patients was not statistically different. The general characteristics of the included 61 patients were shown in [Table 1].
Table 1: The general characteristics of the included 61 patients

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Interleukin-17 and interleukin-35 array

Five ml of peripheral venous blood was obtained from the thyroid cancer and thyroid adenoma patients in the morning under the fasting state with 3500 r/min centrifugalization for 10 min. The supernatant was obtained and stored under −80 centigrade for further use. The serum level of IL-17 and IL-35 in thyroid carcinoma patients was arrayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Statistical analysis

All the data were analyzed by Stata version 11.0 (http://www.stata.com, Stata Co., College Station, TX, USA) software. The serum level of IL-17 and IL-35 are expressed as the mean ± SD. The difference of IL-17 and IL-35 between the thyroid cancer and thyroid adenoma group were tested by Student's t-test. The diagnosis sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were assessed according to the Bayes theorem. Statistical significance was accepted at P < 0.05.


 > Results Top


Serum level of interleukin-17 and interleukin-35 comparison

The serum level of IL-17 were 16.3 ± 4.1 pg/ml and 9.4 ± 3.6 pg/ml for the thyroid cancer and thyroid adenoma patients respectively, with statistical difference (P < 0.05). The serum level of IL-35 were 48.8 ± 7.8 pg/ml and 62.3 ± 9.6 pg/ml for the thyroid cancer and thyroid adenoma patients, respectively, which indicated that the thyroid adenoma group was much higher with statistical difference (P < 0.05) [Figure 1].
Figure 1: The serum level of interleukin-17 and interleukin-35 comparison

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Diagnosed value of level of interleukin-17 and interleukin-35

The diagnosis sensitivity and specificity for serum IL-17 were 71.4% and 80.2% at the cutoff value of 12.1 pg/ml with the area under the ROC of 0.8239. The diagnosis sensitivity and specificity for serum IL-35 were 76.8% and 82.4% at the cutoff value of 57.6 pg/ml with the area under the ROC of 0.8722 [Figure 2].
Figure 2: The diagnosis receiver operating characteristic curve of serum level for interleukin-17 and interleukin-35

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 > Discussion Top


It was reported that about 1850 cancer deaths were occurred in patients with thyroid carcinoma in the United States in the year 2013.[7] Moreover, cancer epidemiology study indicated that the incidence of thyroid carcinoma increased almost 3 times between 1850 and 2004, but the mortality rate decreased to 44%.[8]

A recent study indicated that the incidence of thyroid cancer was on the rising.[9] The pathogenesis of thyroid cancer is complex and can be induced by many factors. Studies have shown that the immune response and inflammation are closely related to the pathogenesis and progression of malignant tumors and play an important role in the progression of malignant tumors.[10],[11] Interleukin was a type of important cytokines, which play an important regulatory role in the occurrence and prognosis of inflammation.[11] IL-17 and IL-35 were members of the Interleukin family. Study shows that IL-17 and IL-35 have played an important role in many severe diseases and malignant tumors.[6]

In this study, we evaluated the serum level of IL-17 and IL-35 in thyroid cancer and thyroid adenoma patients. We found that the serum level of IL-17 were 16.3 ± 4.1 pg/ml and 9.4 ± 3.6 pg/ml for the thyroid cancer and thyroid adenoma patients, respectively, which indicated that the thyroid cancer group was higher with statistical difference (P < 0.05). The serum level of IL-35 were 48.8 ± 7.8 pg/ml and 62.3 ± 9.6 pg/ml for the thyroid cancer and thyroid adenoma patients, respectively, which indicated that the thyroid adenoma group was much higher with statistical difference (P < 0.05). The significant difference of IL-17 and IL-35 in the thyroid cancer and thyroid adenoma patients may indicate that it could be a potential biomarker for diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Thus, we further evaluated the diagnosis value of serum IL-17 and IL-35 as a biomarker for thyroid cancer. We found that the diagnosis sensitivity and specificity for serum IL-17 were 71.4% and 80.2%, respectively, at the cutoff value of 12.1 pg/ml with the area under the ROC of 0.8239. The diagnosis sensitivity and specificity for serum IL-35 were 76.8% and 82.4%, respectively, at the cut-off value of 57.6 pg/ml with the area under the ROC of 0.8722. The serum level of IL-17 and IL-35 was significantly different between the thyroid cancer and thyroid adenoma patients, which could be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid tumor.

However, the patients' number included in this study was relatively small, which made the results, conclusion, and limitation. Moreover, multiple center, prospective controlled trials with more patients included is a need for further evaluation of the feasibility of IL-17 and IL-35 as a biomarker for thyroid cancer diagnosis.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
 > References Top

1.
Nguyen QT, Lee EJ, Huang MG, Park YI, Khullar A, Plodkowski RA. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with thyroid cancer. Am Health Drug Benefits 2015;8:30-40.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Carling T, Udelsman R. Thyroid cancer. Annu Rev Med 2014;65:125-37.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin 2012;62:10-29.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Isailovic N, Daigo K, Mantovani A, Selmi C. Interleukin-17 and innate immunity in infections and chronic inflammation. J Autoimmun 2015;60:1-11.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Bosmann M, Ward PA. Modulation of inflammation by interleukin-27. J Leukoc Biol 2013;94:1159-65.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Wei F, Min H, Jianrong S. Serum IL-17, IL-35 levels and clinical significance in patients with thyroid cancer. J Clin Exp Med 2015;4:32-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J Clin 2014;64:9-29.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2009. CA Cancer J Clin 2009;59:225-49.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Kim TY, Kim WG, Kim WB, Shong YK. Current status and future perspectives in differentiated thyroid cancer. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2014;29:217-25.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Nishino M, Tirumani SH, Ramaiya NH, Hodi FS. Cancer immunotherapy and immune-related response assessment: The role of radiologists in the new arena of cancer treatment. Eur J Radiol 2015;84:1259-68.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Goldszmid RS, Dzutsev A, Trinchieri G. Host immune response to infection and cancer: Unexpected commonalities. Cell Host Microbe 2014;15:295-305.  Back to cited text no. 11
    


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