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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 819-833

Radiation induced bystander effect and DNA damage

Department of Healthcare Biotechnology, Atta-Ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

Correspondence Address:
Nasir Jalal
Department of Healthcare Biotechnology Atta Ur Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad 44000
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0973-1482.144587

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Bystander effects (BSEs) have been investigated for a long time but without much deliberation as to the cause in targeted cells and the subsequent effect in naïve cells. BSEs have traditionally been associated with radiation. Currently, this phenomenon is at a juncture where nuclear DNA damage is being debated as either essential or nonessential. If DNA damage is essential for the bystander signal (BSS) production then, this raises a number of questions about, radiotherapy and chemotherapy of cancer patients. This review presents a detailed analysis of the work done to investigate nuclear DNA damage versus exclusively cytoplasmic targeting with ionizing radiations and measurement of bystander end-points in naïve cells. The review also analyzes some of the research work done to investigate cell models that were developed specifically to study and track radiation-induced DNA damage to construct mutation spectra. Production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as possible candidates of the elusive BSS are also discussed besides the signal transduction pathways implicated in reception of a BSS by the naïve cell.

Abstract in Chinese

辐射诱导的旁观者效应与DNA损伤 摘要 旁观者效应(BSES)已经被研究了很长时间,但对靶细胞及幼稚细胞的后续影响的原因没有深思熟虑。传统上一直认为旁观者效应与辐射相关。目前,这种现象正处于一个关键时刻,就关于核DNA损伤是必要的或不必要的争论。如果DNA损伤是旁观者信号(BSS)产生的必要条件,那么将引发关于放疗和化疗的癌症患者的一些问题。本文介绍了对幼稚细胞DNA损伤与专门的细胞质定位与电离辐射和旁观者的终点测量工作的详细的分析研究。报告还分析了研究所做的细胞模型,是专门开发和跟踪辐射诱导DNA损伤的研究工作构建的突变谱。活性氧和活性氮粒子的产生作为难以捉摸的BSS可能的原因,并讨论了在幼稚细胞接收的BSS牵连的信号转导途径。 关键词:旁观者效应,DNA,健康,辐射

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