|Year : 2011 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 203-204
Metastatic medulloblastoma at diagnosis
Seema Gupta1, MC Pant1, N Husain2, S Sundar1
1 Department of Radiotherapy, C.S.M. Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Pathology, C.S.M. Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
|Date of Web Publication||12-Jul-2011|
Department of Radiotherapy, C.S.M. Medical University, Street: Chowk, Lucknow 226 003, Uttar Pradesh
Source of Support: C.S.M. Medical University, Lucknow, Conflict of Interest: None
Medulloblastoma is an aggressive tumor of the brain. It is the most common and the most malignant embryonal tumor of the pediatric central nervous system and a rare tumor of adults. We are reporting a rare presentation of adult classic subtype of medulloblastoma which was central in location with metastases in the suprasellar region at the time of diagnosis.
Keywords: Adult medulloblastoma, histopathology, MR imaging, suprasellar metastases, treatment
|How to cite this article:|
Gupta S, Pant M C, Husain N, Sundar S. Metastatic medulloblastoma at diagnosis. J Can Res Ther 2011;7:203-4
| > Introduction|| |
Medulloblastoma was first described by Bailey and Cushing in the year 1925.  It is mainly a pediatric tumor but found rare in adults. 
It is uncommon for adult medulloblastoma to present with metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. 
We report a case of adult medulloblastoma with large suprasellar metastases diagnosed on endoscopic biopsy of the suprasellar mass during endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV).
| > Case Report|| |
A 27-year-old male presented with symptoms of raised intracranial tension and bitemporal visual field disturbance for the past 2 months.
MRI showed a heterogeneously space occupying lesion involving vermis and adjoining part of cerebellum and medulla. Another lesion of similar intensity involving suprasellar region was seen. MR spectroscopy (MRS) of posterior fossa mass showed increased choline peak, decreased N-acetyl acetate (NAA) peak with increase choline to creatinine ratio (Ch/Cr) suggestive of neoplastic etiology [Figure 1].
|Figure 1: T2 sagittal and axial (a and b) showing posterior fossa mass and suprasellar mass. (c and d) MR spectroscopy of posterior fossa mass suggestive of malignant lesion|
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The patient underwent ETV procedure along with an endoscopic biopsy of the suprasellar mass, which on histopathology showed a classic subtype of medulloblastoma. Tumor cells were positive for neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin, and negative for cytokeratin [Figure 2]. High expression of Ki67 was noticed. CSF was negative for malignant cells.
|Figure 2: Microphotograph of endoscopic biopsy showing (a) small round cell tumor with cellular molding and rosettes in high power view (H&E × 125× digital magnifi cation), (b) tumor cells are positive for neuronspecifi c enolase (c) synaptophysin, and (d) negative for cytokeratin (DAB × 525× digital magnifi cation)|
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Following biopsy the patient received craniospinal radiation 36 Gy in 18 fractions followed by booster dose of 24 Gy in 12 fractions to suprasellar and posterior fossa, and further followed by cisplatin, CCNU, and vincristine-based chemotherapy for residual disease [Figure 3].
|Figure 3: T1 axial (a– d) showing postradiotherapy and postchemotherapy residual disease in the posterior fossa and suprasellar region|
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| > Discussion|| |
Our patient had a rare presentation of adult classic subtype of medulloblastoma which was central in location with metastases to the suprasellar region at the time of diagnosis disseminated probably through cerebrospinal fluid, whereas the presentation of adult medulloblastoma is characterized by localized lateral tumor location, desmoplastic or classic histology variant, and recurrence of disease after longer time periods. 
Traditionally, classical and desmoplastic variants which are more common in adults were considered favorable histology and degree of anaplasia was considered unfavorable.  However, recent evidence suggests that histopathology grading based on increasing anaplasia predicts clinical behavior of pediatric medulloblastomas and not in adult medulloblastoma, as the histopathologic spectrum of medulloblastoma in adults is different from that in children,  as seen in our patient the classic subtype of medulloblastoma had an aggressive presentation .
The criteria which determine the prognosis in adults include metastasis through CSF to the different regions of brain, nonradical surgery, and a postoperative performance status (PS) >2.
Recent advances in molecular biology and cytogenetics have contributed to the updated classification of medulloblastomas and refined our understanding of the new subtypes. Recognition of these variants becomes important because of their distinct biologic behavior and treatment strategies that may be different.
Gene expression analyses have revealed that expression of several marker genes, such as MYC, ERBB2, and TRKC are associated with poor prognosis. 
| > Acknowledgement|| |
The authors are thankful to Professor Mohan Chand Pant, Head of the Department of Radiohterapay, C.S.M. Medical University, Lucknow for his encouragement and support.
| > References|| |
|1.||Bailey P, Cushing H. Medulloblastoma cerebelli. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1925;14:192-223. |
|2.||Giangaspero F, Bigner SH, Giordana MT, Kleihues P, Trojanowski JQ. Medulloblastoma. In: Kleihues P, Cavenee W, editors. Pathology and Genetics of Tumors of the Nervous System. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2000. p. 129-37. |
|3.||Abacioglu U, Uzel O, Sengoz M, Turkan S, Ober A. Medulloblastoma in adults. Treatment results and prognostic factors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002;54:855-60. |
|4.||Pramanik P, Sharma MC, Mukhopadhyay P, Singh VP, Sarkar C. A comparative study of classical vs desmoplastic medulloblastomas. Neurol India 2003;51:27-34. |
|5.||Giordana MT, D'Agostino C, Pollo B, Silvani A, Ferracini R, Paiolo A, et al. Anaplasia is rare and does not influence prognosis in adult medulloblastoma. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2005;64:869-74. |
|6.||Ray A, Ho M, Ma J, Parkes RK, Mainprize TG, Ueda S, et al. A clinicobiological model predicting survival in medulloblastoma. Clin Cancer Res 2004;10:7613-20. |
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]