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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2005  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 136-141

The optimal use of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor in radiation induced mucositis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.


Department of radiation, surgical and medical oncology, Bhagwan Mahaveer Cancer Hospital, India

Correspondence Address:
Nidhi Patni
Bhagwan Mahaveer Cancer Hospital
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-1482.19589

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Objective: Evaluation of response of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on acute radiation toxicity profile in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Thirty three patients with proven stage I or II head & neck carcinoma received conventional external beam radiation therapy. Out of these, six patients received postoperative adjuvant therapy while remaining 27 received definitive RT. Patients were given 100 mcg GM-CSF subcutaneously per day along with radiation after they developed grade 2 mucositis and /or grade 2 dysphagia and / or complained of moderate pain. GM-CSF was administered till there was a subjective relief or objective response. Patients were evaluated for oral ulceration, swallowing status, pain and weight loss. Response to the treatment and patient outcome was assessed. Results: There was a decreased severity of mucositis and dysphagia in the evaluated patients. None of the patients suffered severe pain or required opioids. The mean weight loss was only 1.94%. Minimal side effects were experienced with GM-CSF. Conclusions: GM-CSF reduces the severity of acute side effects of radiation therapy thereby allowing completion of the treatment without interruption. Its remarkable response needs to be evaluated further in large randomized trials. The time of initiation and cessation of GM-CSF during radiation therapy and the required dose needs to be established.


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